Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 9 - Language Development.rtf

7 Pages

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Kara Thorsen

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Language Development Life Span Development nd February 22 , 2012 Language Development • What Is Language? • How Language Develops • Biological and Environmental Influences (most is textbook only) Defining Language • Form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, based on system of symbols – Infinite generativity — ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules Language’s Rule Systems • Phonology: Sound system of language; how the sounds are used and combined – Phoneme is the smallest unit of sound – E.g., 3 phonemes in “height”: 1) “h” 2) “ei” 3) “t” • Morphology: Rules for combining morphemes, the smallest units of meaning – Examples • Ball: one morpheme, ball • Walked: two morphemes, walk (to take steps) and –ed (indicates past tense) • Syntax: The ways words are arranged to form acceptable phrases and sentences – Incorrect syntax • “I is going to see the show tonight” – Arrangement can change meaning • “The girl carries the cat” vs. “The cat carries the girl” – Different syntax rules for different languages • English: “the blue sky” • Spanish: “el cielo azul (sky blue)” • Semantics: Meanings of words and sentences – E.g, My car cooked dinner for Tuesday. • Pragmatics: Appropriate use of language in context; Can be very complex – Taking turns in conversation – Using a question as a command: “why are you standing on your desk?” “What am I, a taxi?” – Dependent on culture: Using polite situations in appropriate situations, telling jokes that are funny, saying lies that are convincing Video: Sarcasm How Language Develops • Infancy • Early Childhood • Middle and Late Childhood • Adolescence • Adulthood and Aging Infancy • Babbling, gestures, and other vocalizations – Crying - from birth, then learn to use it to communicate hunger, anger, pain, etc. Video: Infant cries – Cooing (1 -2 months+): vowel-like sounds, “aah”; exploratory sounds (raspberries, lip smacking) Video: Cooing – Babbling (6-8 months): Simple, “bababa” Video: Simple Babbling and complex, “mabagoo” Video: Complex Babbling – Gestures (8-12 months): giving, pointing, showing, wave bye-bye, nod head for “yes” – Sign Language: decreases frustration; aids communication • Recognizing Language Sounds – ‘Citizens of the world’: Universal language perceivers – Newborns recognize sound changes, “ba ba pa pa” – Specialize own language sounds at 6 months, and lose the ability to recognize sound differences that are not important in own language • E.g., Japanese infants and /r/ /l/ sounds – First Words – Receptive vocabulary considerably exceeds spoken vocabulary – Timing of first word and vocabulary spurt varies • Two-Word Utterances – Begins between 18 to 24 months – Child relies heavily on gesture, tone, context – Telegraphic Speech — use of short and precise words without grammatical markers – Can convey many meanings • E.g., agent-action “baby eat”; possession “my toy”; repetition “more bubbles” Early Childhood • 2-3 years: simple sentences complex sentences • Understanding Phonology and Morphology • Children know morphological rules • Plural (girls) and possessive (girl’s) forms of nouns • Third-person singular (walks) and past-tense verbs (walked) – Children abstract rules and apply them to nov
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