Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 10 - Emotional Development.rtf
Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 10 - Emotional Development.rtf

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Emotional Development Life Span Developmental Psychology February 22 , 2012 Emotional Development  Emotions  Development of Emotion  Attachment and Love WhatAre Emotions?  Afeeling, or affect, comprised of biological, cognitive and behavioral components o Biological component (physiological arousal)  Nervous system involved (when feel emotion there is a physiological change)  Universal emotions (across cultures; blind child smiling) biological basis o Cognitive component (conscious experience)  Appraisals of physical state  Goal achievement or failure o Behavioral component (expression)  Cultures dictate emotional expression (smiling in the West)  Influences display of behavior (at a funeral don’t laugh) Purpose of emotions  To motivate: o What do you do if you suddenly feel afraid? o If you have a really fun, nice friend do you want to see him/her more often?  To communicate: o Child looks to caregiver to know if it’s okay to do something o Tells us if AND how we should approach Emotional Regulation  Effectively managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal o Ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions o Soothing behaviors modulate emotion reduction in stress hormones and improved functioning Developmental trends in emotion regulation  External versus internal resources o From infancy onward, less reliance on caregiver to sooth and more reliance on self (infants-suck on thumb)  Cognitive Strategies o See event in a positive light; shift attention o Improves with age  Self-regulation of arousal o With age, children are better at modulating their emotional arousal (e.g., controlling angry outbursts)  Situations and Relations o Selecting and managing situations and relationships in way that minimize negative affect o Improves across adulthood  Coping with stress o With age, we become better at dealing with stress—we have many more coping strategies Development of Emotion  Early emotions o Surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust o Present in humans and other animals o Appear in first six months of life How do infants communicate their emotions?  Crying o Basic cry, anger cry, pain cry o Parents best at distinguishing one cry from the other  Smiling o Reflexive smile:  Does not occur in response to external stimuli  Appears during first month after birth o Social smile:  Occurs in response to external stimuli  Can occur as early as 4-6 weeks in response to caregiver’s voice Fear  First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos.  StrangerAnxiety: infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos. o Affected by social context, stranger’s characteristics  Social referencing: Reading emotional cues in others to determine how to act in a particular situation  Separation protest: crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age  Separation Protest in Four Cultures Early Childhood  Self-Conscious Emotions o Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt o First appear about age 18 months o Requires self-awareness o Acquire and use society’s standards and rules Middle and Late Childhood  Marked improvements o Improved emotional understanding  More self-generating (e.g., pride on getting anAon a test) o Improved ability to suppress negative emotional reactions  Being bullied - implications o Better able to redirect feelings  Can use thought distraction o Better at understanding what leads to an emotion o Develop capacity for empathy Adolescence  Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly  Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation o Girls more vulnerable to depression o Adolescent moodiness is normal o Hormonal changes and environmental experiences involved in changing emotions o Self-Reported Extremes of Emotions byAdolescents and their Parents Adulthood  Adapt more effectively when emotionally intelligent  Developmental changes in emotion continue through adult years  Older adults have more positive emotions, report better control of emotions Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  Older adults become more selective about their social networks. o Place a high value on emotional satisfaction and maximize positive emotional experiences. o Spend more time with familiar individuals providing rewarding relationships o Seek more emotion-related goals than knowledge-related goals  Model of Socio-emotional Selectivity  Perception of time linked to place in the life cycle  Goals shift as a function of this time perspective  When time is perceived as expansive, knowledge-focused goals take precedence o Sometimes at cost of well-being o As time becomes limited, people choose goals that preserve affective well-being o Older adults structure environment to enhance well-being What happens when you “shift” time on people?  When time perspective is “shortened” younger adults look similar to older adults  When it is “lengthened,” older adults look similar to younger adults AttachmentAcross the Lifespan Attachment  Attachment — close emotional bond to a caregiver  Foundation for attachment based on… o Social orientation o Social understanding o Motor development o Cognitive development Theories of Attachment  Freud: infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfaction o Harlow’s study with monkeys proved otherwise  Erikson: first year of life is key time for attachment development o Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations  Bowlby: stresses importance of attachment in fir
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