Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 16 - School Achievement and Work.rtf

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Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Lecture 16: School Achievement and Work Life Span Developmental Psychology th March 14 , 2012 School Effectiveness • State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role: No Child Left Behind • Critics argue that they lead to – Single score being used as sole predictor – Teaching to test; use of memorization – Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills Incentives for high scores; Should money be given as a reward, or to help schools that need it most? SES and Ethnicity in Schools • Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school • School inequalities – Schools in poor areas • Underfunded; inadequate supplies and books; facility not maintained • Young inexperienced teachers; emphasize rote memorization; threatening disciplinary tactics • Largely segregated – Ethnic school experiences vary across groups Educating adolescents  Transitions: The top-dog phenomenon  Trends in high school drop out rates  The IHAD program: “adopting” entire cohorts and offering college/vocational school tuition Development in College • In U.S., 75% of all H.S. seniors enroll in post-HS training program (college, vocational training, etc.) • College – More women than men (2010 HS grads: 74% of women vs. 63% of men enrolled in college) – Offers route to higher status career and extrinsic rewards that accompany it – Number consistently increasing over past 50 years (especially in Caucasian youth) – 25% who start college finish within 4-5 years Development in College • Growth of Knowledge – Gains in knowledge of particular domain (major) • Psychological Growth – Better able to apply reason to solve problems that do not have one answer – Can identify strengths/ weaknesses of different sides of argument – Greater interest in arts, literature, philosophical & historical issues – Greater tolerance for ethnic and cultural diversity – Higher/more advanced moral reasoning Cohort Effects of College Experience • College students in early 1980s – Perry’s 1981 4-yr study of Harvard students – Goal is, in part, to develop a philosophy of life – A few activities/organizations--large majority of students participated • College students today – Goal is to secure a good job – Changing demographic characteristics of college: more women than men (110 women to 100 men-constant since 1980s (74 women/100 men in 60s); Hispanic students increased from 4% to 8%) – More activities/ organizations—so fewer large groups Dropping Out of College • Late 1990s, 40% drop out year 1 • More individuals
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