PSY BEH 11B Lecture 3: Lecture 3 (Neural Basis for Learning, Instrumental Conditioning)

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Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Kier Groulx

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PsyBeh 11B – Lecture 3 Instrumental Learning – Neural Basis of Learning Shaping • Process of eliciting a desired response by rewarding behaviors that are increasingly similar to that response o Narrow down range of behaviors rewarded until you get to desired action • Basically, starting small, rewarding as organism gets closer and closer to wanted response o Demands become stricter; rewards only when closer • Video of owner training dog o Goal Behavior – Two feet in the box ▪ Dog learns by trial and error o What does the trainer saying “yes” serve? ▪ Conditioned reinforce • Not primary because the word “yes” means nothing to the dog; the primary reinforce to the dog is the treat • Word “yes” has been classically conditioned onto the dog • Dog hears “yes” and knows that treat is coming Reinforcement • One half of the coin that is operant conditioning • Reinforcement – consequence causes learner to produce a behavior with greater frequency o Consequence – something that happens after behavior is produced ▪ Not necessarily “bad” o Operant – behavior • Positive Reinforcement – a consequences increases what the learner wants o Allowance contingent on completing weekly chores ▪ Parents want you to do this with more frequency ▪ Award you money as motivation o “A” on a well written paper ▪ Reinforce good writing habits ▪ Reward is “A” • Negative Reinforcement - consequence that reduces what the learner does not want o Roommate cleans kitchen to stop being nagged about it ▪ You nag your roommate over and over, when he cleans, you’ll stop nagging him and it increases likelihood of him cleaning in future to avoid nagging o Using seatbelt to stop the dinging noise” in your car Contrasting Positive and Negative Reinforcement • Scenario Parent and Child in Grocery Store o Child asks for candy bar and parents say no o Child begins to have a tantrum: screaming and kicking o Everyone else in store looks disapprovingly at parents o Parent gives in and buys kid candy bar o Kid stops screaming o Other people stop looking and go back to their business • Identify two instance of reinforcement in this scenario o Positive Reinforcement – Parents giving in and giving Child candy ▪ Parent provides/increases a consequence Child desires ▪ In this case, the parent provides the child candy, which is what the child desires ▪ While the parents goal was to get the child to stop behaving in such a way, if following the chart, it would in fact, increase the child’s likeliness to throw a tantrum again o Negative Reinforcement – people stop staring at family ▪ Crowd removes/decreases a consequence that Parents find aversive ▪ In this case, crowd stops staring at them when they get child to stop throwing tantrum ▪ Encourages parents to try whatever they can next time to get child to stop tantrum, though their methods actually encourage more tantrums Puni
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