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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Raymond Novaco

Hobbes :Leviathan Violence & Society • Who was Thomas Hobbes, and why is he important for our course on violence and society? • What was the historical context of his writing Leviathan? Raymond W. Novaco • What is Leviathan? What is the social contract? What is University of California, Irvine Hobbes’view of human nature? P178/C149 • Why did his view of Leviathan cause a stir among those lecture notes, January 23, 2014 in power? The Formation of Society: Classical Views Hobbes (1588-1679) “love of association” English political philosopher, who lived in a turbulent period • government provides for the formation of • intense religious conflict (Protestant vs Catholic) • English Civil War (1642-1648); part of the wider conflict communities to promote well-being • the terror of the SpanishArmada (1588) !pursuit of justice is key versus His first published work was a translation of Thucycdides Leviathan (1651) “fear of harm” " concerns human nature, violence, authority, social contract • government provides for order and security !collective life is unstable; well being ensured " governmental authority is based on secular utilitarianism, by using power to stabilize human relations rather than on divine right Rousseau, continued Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712-1778) Discourseon the Origin of Inequality (1755) • philosopher,Age of Enlightenment • born in Geneva, wrote mostly in France ##Hobbes was wrong in thinking that war was a natural Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1755) state or condition The Social Contract (1762) • like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, he built his social and ##natural man was guided by self-preservation,but fear of political theories upon a conception of humannature violent death is a product of society, not nature ##natural principle of self-preservationis moderated by !!in contrast to Hobbes, his view of the “state of nature” is that man is essential good and happy compassion, a natural principle also found in animals !!in the “state of nature”, man was good, self-sufficient, ##inequalities are created in society as a product of our ability to think and calculate, discovering relations compassionate, and un-proud ##as discovery of inequalities occurs, so then does violence !!society develops man’s faculties, and thereby corrupts him in competition for material means of existence 1 Rousseau, continued Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Social Contract (1762) Lived in Vienna, from wherebe fled in 1937afterthe Nazi ##argues against Hobbes idea of sovereignty, but annexation ofAustria. Went to London, where he died ## acknowledges brutishness in the state of nature. Fatherof Psychoanalysis ##to achieve full potential, the essential goodness of man • theory of personality requires social organization • form of psychotherapy Some major works: Studies in Hysteria (1895) ##the community is to be guided and regulated by the sovereign power of the “general will” Interpretationof Dreams (1900) ThreeTheories of Sexuality (1905) Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1916) US visit Tackett (2000) on “reign of terror” The Ego and the Id (1923) !!the revolutionaries’belief in a single, indivisible “general will” led them to conclude that all opposition or dissent was criminal and Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) counterrevolutionary,which brought them to the idea of conspiracy Pertinentto anger and aggression: Beyondthe PleasurePrinciple (1920) and of a pervasive enemy with whom to engage in a death struggle Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud !!concept of the “death instinct” • Freudsought to understand humanconflict,not only in the patients who came to his officebut also in human society BeyondThe PleasurePrinciple (1920) The Ego and the Id (1923) The EconomicPrinciple of Masochism (1924) • Freud’sthinking is often metaphorical Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) !!conflict is thus view in term of opposing forces i.e. life instinct versus death instinct provocativethesis on innate savageness of man humanaggression is the result of its directing outward !!the theme of death was salient to him of the death instinct in the service of Eros WWI; Vienna opera; Vienna plague monuments (angernot mentioned) • “fusion” with life instincts can neutralizethe death instinct • Freudhad great interest in archeology • displacementcan provide for vicarious release !!thus, he gave value to “digging” into the human psyche Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) Philosophies of War: Anatol Rapaport Author of book, “On War” 1. political / rational Prussian soldier and writer, born near Madenburg, entered • War is an act of violence intended to compel our opponent the Prussian army as an ensign in 1792, served in Rhine to fulfill our will (Clausewitz). campaigns 1793-94, entered military school in Berlin rational - as a decision based on estimatedcosts and gains (1801); later wounded and taken prisoner. Became the military instructor to the Crown Prince; after campaign in instrumental- as waged to achieve some goal (neverfor its the Russian army, re-entered Prussian army and became own sake) national - as advancing the interests of a mobilized nation major general (1818). Died of cholera in 1831. Well-known for his view of war as a rational instrument !!ar as a chess game. of national policy. 2 Rapaport: philosophies of war, continued Rapaport: philosophies of war, continued 3. Cataclysmic 2. Eschatological • History will culminate in a "final" war leading to the • War as a catastrophe
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