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Lecture 12

PSYCH 7A Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Semantic Memory, Endel Tulving, Episodic MemoryPremium

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PSYCH 7A - Lecture 12 - Memory (cont.)
Long-term Memory
Our capacity for relatively-permanent, long-term memories is virtually limitless in
capacity and (potentially) in duration
Most information becomes encoded in long-term memory through attention and effortful,
active processing
The most common way that we actively process information is through rehearsal
The conscious repetition of information in short-term memory
The more we rehearse information held in short-term memory, the more likely it will
become encoded in LONG-TERM memory
Serial Position Effect
Occurs when learning a list of items
Immediately after learning the list, you remember the first and last items better than the
middle items
After a delay, your recall is best for the FIRST items in the list (the increased recall of the
last item goes away!)
Rehearsal plays a role in why we have an increase memory for the first few items
What We Encode
We can encode different aspects of a stimulus:
We can encode the meaning of that stimulus
We can encode visual aspects of that stimulus (i.e. what the stimulus looks like)
We can encode auditory aspects of that stimulus (i.e. what the stimulus sounds
Effective Encoding
What kind of encoding is most effective at getting information into LTM?
Craik & Tulving (1975)
Compared 3 types of encoding for effectiveness in processing verbal information
(visual/acoustic/semantic encoding)
Asked subjects a question about the word they were about to see, one that
requires them to process (encode) the word either visually, acoustically, or
Afterward, researchers gave subjects a surprise memory test
RESULTS: Semantic encoding (encoding the MEANING of the stimulus) led
more subject to later recognize words
Levels of Processing
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