We go back to familial issues and the develop brain. Brian development: the way you are being treated when you were young highly decided how you would behave when you grow up. Psychosocial stages of development: birth to 1 year: trust v. s. mistrust, 2-4 years: autonomy v. s. shame and doubt. Express by misbehaving: 4-5 years: initiative v. s. guilt, 5-12 years: industry vs. inferiority, adolescence-puberty, adulthood. Disruptions to health development: abuse: physical, mental, emotional, rape/molestation, violence, malnutrition/ starvation, neighborhood effects (erin brokovinch, pregnancy. In the study, 46% of the families reported an annual income of 20,000 or less (effects of poverty: high crime rate areas, 13-18 years. Only 16. 9% were active members for one year or less. Only 16. 9% were active for two years or less and 10. 5% for three years or less: only 2. 4% remained in the gang for four years.