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Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium.docx

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Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium  How far does a reaction proceed toward the completion before it reaches a state of chemical equilibrium – a state in which the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change?  Chemical reactions can occur in both forward and reverse directions, and when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions become equal, the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant. o Chemical system is at equilibrium  Mixture of reactants and products in the equilibrium state is called an equilibrium mixture. 13.1 The Equilibrium State  Previous chapter chemical reactions result in complete conversion of reactants and products. o Many reactions, however do not go to complete  All chemical reactions are reversible. o Irreversible reactions are simple those that proceed nearly to completion, so that the equilibrium mixture contains almost all products and almost no reactants  For such reactants, the reverse reaction is often too slow to be detected  Concentrations reach constant values, not because the reactions stop, but because the rates of the forward and reverse reaction become equal. o Example:  N O2i4 converted to an equilibrium mixture of NO and N2O 2 4  Because reaction rates depend on concentrations, the rate of the forward reaction (N O242NO ) de2reases as the concentration of N O2d4creases, while the rate of
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