MUS 018 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Timesdaily, Hymns To Mary, Duple Coachbuilders

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12 Oct 2016
Music Notes
2 Kinds of sound:
o Noise- Characterized by irregular waveform
o Pitch- Characterized by regular waveform
**The frequency of the wave in a pitch determines whether it is high or low
Sound generators:
o Chordophones: String instrument
Example: violin, piano, guitar
o Aerophones: Wind instrument
Sets wind in motion
Example: Saxophone, trumpet, flute
o Idiophones: Percussion without a membrane
Ex: Top of piano
o Membranophone: Percussion instrument with a membrane that you strike
Ex: Drums
Tone Color or Timbre
o Created by overtones
Each pitch is made of frequencies and several pitches make a chord
*Tone color caused by overtones
The more tension on strings, the higher the pitch
Electrophones: Any electronic instrument in which sound is emitted by electrical impulses
o Ex: Phone or portable piano
o 20th century invention
Dynamics: Intensity of sound; loud or soft *Dynamics determined by amplitude*
o Determined by amplitude
What produces color tones?
o Overtones
Rhythm: Relative durations of musical sound
Music note perceived as short or long relative to what came before and after
Musical rhythm does not have to have a beat sense but it usually does
o Music historically involves other extents (ex: dancing)
Regularly stressed sounds = beats
o **Beats are usually organized into patterns strong and weak of meter
Types of meter
o Duple: Strong weak strong weak strong weak → ex: marching
o Triple: Strong weak weak strong weak weak → ex: waltz
o Compound meter: 2 beats subdivided into 3
o Hemiola: Regular alternation of compound and triple
Tempo (Means “time” in Italian)
o The frequency of beats
A melody consists of motives and phrases
Motives: 2-5 notes that gives a melody its character ex: Beethoven’s 5th symphony C minor short
o Motives make up phrases, 2 or more phrases make a melody
Hemiola alternates triple and compound meters
**Syncopation is the alternation of weak beats or parts of a beat (upbeat)
Normal pattern of duple meter:
o 1 (strong) 2 (weak) 3 (strong) 4 ( weak)
Rock beat: , 2 , 4 accentuates normally weak beats
**Scale is a series of pitches
o Two basic types are major (sounds happy) and minor (sounds sad)
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