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PHIL 001
Gillian Ramsey

Argument for the Tripartite Soul Desires for x^2 1. We clearly have desires for food and drink [simple desires: not higher-order desires (e.g. get a good paying job = REASON) or regulative desires]. 2. Sometimes a thirsty person does not want to drink because…some reason [a higher-order or regulative desire] 3. So, by the hypothesis, in the example, two parts of the soul “move” the person. 4. “We’ll call the part of the soul with which it calculates the rational part and the part with which it lusts, hungers, thirsts, and get excited by other appetites the irrational appetitive part…” (349d). Desire and reason 5. Leontius chastises himself for his sexual desires, so not the appetitive part (440e); small children exhibit spiritedness before they develop their rational capacities, so not the rational part (441b). 6. So, by the hypothesis, spiritedness must be a third part of the soul. Shaming yourself for bad acts for example; shame has a function to regulate/help to regulate one’s desires Desire, reason, spiritedness – three parts of the soul  We can use desire in generally three ways We use “DESIRE” 3 days a. Simple desires [Match Plato’s use] I’m thirsty/hungry b. Simple desires for x … x^2 [Either above or below reason]Cheesesteak; not clear to Prof where they belong; it belongs in terms of desire/reason c. Long term plans/goals [ Match Plato’s notion of reason] Desire for weekend plans; not tie into biological needs (simple desires are there for this); long term plans, intentions, creating a new habit like going to the gym; Prof’s old goal of being a vegetarian  Commit more in the reading and review in the notes o Read all the analects  Grief  Psychological phenomenon (e.g. emotion) – role to fall in one part of the soul or another (love – has desire aspect as well as a regulation/reason type aspect)  Significance: Key for next two units; we’re getting a psychology We’re working on a principled answer on how to live a good life o Psychology broken up into desires, emotions, and reasons o Freud has taken off in the id, ego, and superego o Take logic of city individual metaphor and apply to psychology; justice – specific type of psychology  Will a particular inner-city organization satisfy Glaucon? o Distinction between desire and everything o Ethics of care – different psychological care emerges Stage 2: Applying the metaphor (441c-44c) Remember, the logic of the metaphor? (A) Since the polis is larger than an individual, it will be easier to find justice in the polis and then, utilizing the logic of the metaphor, look for justice in the individual. Fcn – what it specifically does Virtue – performing that fcn well Desire – you need to eat/drink Functions: Desire: desire good that will fulfill needs Spiritedness: protect from outside threats and inner turmoil Reason: deliberate and establish policies for the person. Virtues (performing function well): Desire: moderation (Prof thinks of the mean between two extremes; Prof buys gormeut chefs that can make anything he wants (excess); monk who wants to forgo desires and eats what one barely needs to get by (meager) The rulers figure out what the policies are and then create a regulation/law, then tells the producers what they need to do in order to ensure that they are moderate Polis – moderate when needs are met; producers fill polis’ needs and fills need according to policies Wrestler vs. ordinary person – wrestler needs to eat 10x (moderate, not excessive b/c wrestler has a regulation to eat to create muscle; Prof’s regulation is to eat 2000 calories b/c he does a lot of writing); relative to person and how they’ve determined what the regulations are Spiritedness (reactive attitudes – respond to outside threats/shame you/do some internal policing): courage Courage is leftover from talk about the warriors; the meaning is different (different significance) Courage – your emotions should be in line w/ what the reason says; Lionitus’ desires win out, not his emotions IMPORTANT: Courageous if it aligns itself with reason and it succeeds in overcoming desire it’s policing It came out of the parts working together and stuck to its own job Reason (like rulers – leads to deliberation and policies one ought to follow): wisdom
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