4_12_13 Notes.docx

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PHIL 001
Gillian Ramsey

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Philosophy Notes 4/12/13  the Republic BOOK IV: Justice = well-orderedness o Socrates’ answer to what’s justice o Justice in city and the individual is well-orderedness/harmony o Extended metaphor between the city and the individual Producers + Policy = Moderation  Concluding the metaphor The polis is wise because the rulers have (and exercise) knowledge about the whole and the maintenance of good internal and external relations (428d) The polis is courageous because the guardians preserve the polis through its various trials (430b) The polis is moderate when its needs are met (producers produce goods in accordance with the rulers’ policies); moderate because the producers fulfill the polis’ needs. (432a) Virtues (Performing function well) Producers: moderation (dependent on the ruler’s wisdom) Auxiliaries: courage Rulers: wisdom o Functions of the city and three classes (divided up by personalities)  Producers, Auxiliaries, and Rulers o Book IV – we figure out where we locate justice in the city  We will discuss what it means for each part to function well to be virtuous  Polis will be wise when rulers get to exercise their knowledge and decide policies for the whole city, what goods, when to go to war, and the daily function of a city o We skipped the chunk about the education system “Then, it turns out that this doing one’s own work…is justice” (433b) Justice comes from relationship; groups not doing function = disharmonious city “Meddling and exchange between these three classes, then, is the greatest harm that can happen to the city and would rightly be called the worst thing someone could do to it” (434c) Justice arises when each group acts according to its function and performs that function well (i.e. act virtuously) o There are three parts of the city and three corresponding functions and three corresponding virtues o Functions/parts/virtues are the same in each case Arguments for Justice Stage 1: Tripartite Soul (435c-441c) Reason – Spiritedness (aka reactive attitudes) – Appetites / Desires Spiritedness – emotions you have when you react to situations (resentment/shame are reactive attitudes) Shame, self-reproach, self-competitiveness, etc. Movement Thesis: It is not possible for the same thing to stand still and move at the same time in the same part of itself For example, you can’t move body horizontally and stand still at the same time [Intuitive – physical] (what’s true of physical objects are true of non-physical objects) God is immaterial and can be moving in different sort of ways – contradicts the movement thesis “move” – explanatory work and is not supposed to be taken literally Assent/dissent and wanting/rejecting and taking/pushing away are different movements Intuitive of physical objects can be applied to mental objects/non-material things Hypothesis: if the soul “moves” towards/agrees/ascents to X and simultaneously “moves” either away from X or towards Y, then different parts of the soul are “moving”. Socrates isn’t being literal – he’s trying to offer an explanation in terms that Glaucon and Adeimantus agrees to Make sure you’re tak
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