CHM 2040 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Electron Rest Mass

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3 Sep 2016
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Dalton’s atomic theory
-all matter (elements) are composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms
-all atoms of a given element are identical to each other and different from this of other elements
-a chemical reaction involves a change in the groupings of atoms
atoms are not created/destroyed (law of conservation of mass)
Rutherford’s gold foil experiment
-most alpha particles passed through the gold foil
-atoms are mostly empty space
small, dense, central core
electrons distributed diffusely in space around the nucleus
-3 subatomic particles
proton
neutron
electron
-mass of protons is significantly heavier than electrons, neutrons and protons have
approximately the same mass
-most of the mass is in the nucleus
-atomic number=number of protons (identifies an element)
-number of protons=number of electrons (if not charged)
-number of neutrons varies due to isotopes
-number of electrons and protons determine atom/ion
-mass number: number of neutrons + number of electrons
-net charge= electrons lost (+) or gained (-)
-the size of a degree on the celsius scale is equivalent to the size of kelvins
variation of temp: ΔT(K)=ΔT(C)
F= 1.8C + 32
C= (F-32)/1.8
K=C+273 or C=K-273
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