HSC 4555 Lecture 1: Pathophysiology I Exam 1 Review

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14 Nov 2016
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Pathophysiology I Exam 1 Review
Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathophysiology Concepts
Definitions:
Etiology: origin/cause of the disease
o Iatrogenic: cause is the result of an unintended or unwanted medical treatment
o Idiopathic: unknown cause
Pathogenesis: steps in the development of the disease/how the disease developed
Clinical manifestations: signs and symptoms
o Sign: objective changes that clinicians can observe and measure (for example: fever or
rash)
o Symptom: subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer
(for example: headache or nausea)
o Syndrome: when cause of signs/symptoms are not determined
** How are Etiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment plans/responses all related?
They are the framework for pathophysiology (the study of abnormalities in physiological
functions). An understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of a
particular disorder may imply that certain treatments could be helpful.
** An 87-year-old patient presents in the Emergency Room with a 10 F temperature, 125 BPM heart
rate, and is hypotensive. Prior to being admitted to the hospital the doctor diagnosis the patient with
Sepsis of an unknown source. In other words, the disease is idiopathic.
** What are the fie stages of a disease? Desrie the. There is oe sustage
Latent or incubation period (no recognition by patient, lab tests may detect)
Prodromal period/ prodrome (appearance of first signs/symptoms (non-specific)
Subclinical phase (patient functions normally although disease
well established)
Manifest illness/Acute phrase (signs/symptoms at greatest severity)
Acute: severe manifestations for a short time (hoursa few weeks)
Chronic: lasts for months to years
** Acute can turn to chronic, but chronic cannot turn to acute
Definitions:
Exacerbations: sudden increase in severity of disease
Remissions: decline or abatement in severity of disease
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o If a remission is permanent (sometimes defined as longer than 5 years) the person is
said to be cured
Convalescence: stage of recovery after disease, injury, or surgery
o Sequela: primary pathological condition that occurs because of the disease
o Complication: secondary conditions that occurs because of the disease
Reliability: giving the same result
Validity (accuracy): reflects the true value
Predictive value: extent to which the test can differentiate between the presence or
absence of a condition
o Positive: estimate of the probability that disease is present if the test is positive
o Negative: estimate of the probability that disease is absent if the test is negative
Sensitivity: probability that a test will be positive when applied to a person with the
condition
Specificity: probability that a test will be negative when applied to a person without the
condition
** What are the factors that impact epidemiology?
Epidemiology: study of patterns of disease
o Factors:
Age
Ethnic group
Gender
Socioeconomic factors and lifestyle conditions
Geographic location
Endemic
Epidemic
Pandemic
Native to a local region
Outbreak spreading rapidly through a
population
Worldwide epidemic
Primary Prevention: altering susceptibility or reducing exposure
Secondary Prevention: Aims to reduce the impact and progression of a disease that has already been
established. (For example: screenings and pap smears)
Tertiary Prevention: medical and surgical (disease is present already)
** A patient with a family of Coronary Artery Disease is diagnosed with a Mitral Valve Prolapse, their
doctor recommends yearly cardiac evaluation. The evaluation is considered secondary Prevention.
** A 47-year-old patient present in their Primary Care Physician's office status post a spinal fusion done
secondary to his chronic back pain from multiple herniated discs. The spinal fusion treatment for
herniated discs is considered secondary Prevention.
** Education on a disease and steps to take to prevent the disease is provided to students at UCF
through various health departments. This is primary Prevention
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Chapter 4 Cell Injury, Aging, and Death
Cell Injury Etiology:
Ischemic/Hypoxic: most common cause of cell injury
o Ischemia: lack of oxygen to the tissue itself or interruption of blood flow to an area
o Hypoxia: lack of oxygen in the blood
Reperfusion: restoring the flow of blood to an organ or tissue
o Increase of Anaerobic Respiration - Lactic Acid build up Acidosis
Increase of anaerobic respirations is the way the bacteria develops
Blood becomes acidic which can lead to organ failure
Nutritional injury: a balancing act the body does and when you throw something off that
you are consuming you can develop an injury. Some nutritional injuries are reversible, while
others are not
o Deficiency: result from poor intake, altered absorption, impaired distribution by the
circulatory system, or inefficient cellular uptake
iron deficiency affets RBC’s; itai D defiie affets oes
o Excess: result from excessive intake
too much sodium you can become hypertensive or you can die
neurons uptake excess glucose
Infection/Immune Response
o Direct: your immune cells responding to the site of the infection
o Indirect:
Physical/Mechanical
o Factors:
Extremes in temperature
Abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure
Mechanical deformation
Electricity
Ionizing radiation
Cellular Aging: cumulative result of a progressive decline in the proliferative and reparative
capacity of cells coupled with exposure to environmental factors
o Causes:
Mutations
Cell loss
Accumulated metabolic cell damage
Aging: exceeding life expectancy but not maximal life span
Somatic Death: death of the entire organism; no inflammation or immunologic response
occurs prior to death
o No respiration
o No heartbeat
o Rigor mortis: accumulation of calcium and the depletion of ATP result in actin
myosin cross bridging; presence of stiffened muscles throughout the body after
death (apparent within 6 hours after death)
o Postmortem autolysis: widespread release of lytic enzymes in tissues throughout
the body that causes tissue deterioration (apparent 24-48 hours after death)
Cell injury
o Reversible: mild, transient
Reduced oxidative phosphorylation
ATP depletion
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