HSC 4558 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Dura Mater, Pia Mater, Basal Ganglia

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12 Apr 2016
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Chapter 43: structure and function of the nervous system. Meninges affix the brain to the skull so that the brain is suspended and supported. The spinal cord has a similar arrangement of meningeal coverings. Cerebrospinal fluid (csf) is produced in the brain ventricles and circulates in the subarachnoid spaces, providing cushioning and nutritive functions. The brain is protected by specialized tight junctions between the cells of the capillary endothelium (blood-brain barrier) and between the ependymal cells that line the ventricles (csf-brain barrier). The brain can be anatomically divided into four principal structures: (1) the cerebrum (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic cortex, and corpus callosum); (2) the diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus); (3) the cerebellum; and (4) the brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla). Basal ganglia are located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and are important in the control of skeletal muscles. Parkinson disease is an important example of basal ganglia dysfunction characterized by akinesia, rigidity, and rest tremor.

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