INR 4084 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Conventional Warfare

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8 Feb 2017

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INR 4084
Diplomacy is the way we like to do things but you have to have something to offer and you need
people who know how to negotiate.
Below that on the moral scale are covert actions, may include violence but doesn’t need to.
Includes hacking, funneling money, blackmailing, sabotage assassination.
-Covert actions are relatively low risk because they are very hard or impossible to prove and the
benefits can be huge.
Then there’s warfare
Strategic warfare is usually made of conventional warfare armies but both sides go past enemy
lines and target civilians. WW2 was fought in this way. Douhet was a theorist who thought of
attacking the people back home who make war because he knew that when they start feeling the
danger they start getting scared and the war will usually end sooner. Moral debate on if a couple
hundred civilian casualties make up for thousands of military casualties. There has been cases
when theories have been wrong and just made the wars worse. Americans were willing to
attempt strategic bombing in day light so many times the Americans knew they would die in
order to not miss targets as opposed to British who just night bombed general areas. That tactic
didn’t work since people being bombed usually didn’t have a voice and could do anything about
the war. There are some people who argue that strategic warfare is terrorism.
Conventional is uniform guys on both sides with guns fighting across border, usually clear line
of conflict, this leaves civilians out of it. Last full conventional war was ww1. Civilians were
largely left out of it. Fighting for this was usually just for land so civilians were protected. Also
back then during conventional warfare we didn’t have the technology to get at civilians since
they’re behind enemy lines. Conventional forces defend territories.
Below that is guerrilla warfare, derives from Spain during napoleonic wars. Theres usually a
normal army that’s going against a civilian army. Weapons are usually stolen or gotten illegally
and units are small because they don’t have people and resources to fight against big militaries,
so they usually hide out in mountains and such. Fighting is still mostly guys with guns vs guys
with guns. People usually have to hide in with civilians so they make it very hard for opposing
side to attack. Due to this there’s a lot more civilian casualties. The targets may be people of
authority and not necessarily other militaries which makes their attacks terrorist like. Guerrillas
usually can’t defend territories, they hope to grow and become conventional forces because
guerrilla sides usually never win. In Cuba Castro had a guerrilla force in the hills that didn’t
really achieve anything until Castro’s army set off car bomb to scare Bautista and make him
resign. This was a rare occurrence of a victory without going to conventional warfare.
Terrorism is violence and the fear of violence targeted at civilians for political purpose.
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