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Lecture 1

PHI 2010 Lecture 1: ch 1-3 notes

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PHI 2010

the 2 major traditions of philosophy are (1) the study of human nature (2) the study of nature o both traditions were combined in order to discover the limits of our knowledge of nature (began with Descartes and brought to its height by Kant) preSocratics thought about nature, mathematics, explorers, thinkers o reality was orderly because nature was natural philosopher= studies nature and its laws o newton objectivity was gods eye view a person could not be fully objective because the bias is already there as soon as you start observing data, you lose objectivity born unbiased, but immediately starts building up information= step beyond data, already formed human beings differ from animals in that they have logos (reasoning) Socrates engaged in dialogues known as logos o Dia= through o Logue logos o Only human beings have logos aka logic Agora= marketplace o Point of meetingdiscussion o Wise old men would teach the younger ones Sophists professional teachers and intellectuals who offered young wealthy Greek men an education in arte in exchange for a fee o Arte virtue or excellence, the ability to influence ones fellow citizens in political gatherings through rhetorical persuasion o PreSocratic school of philosophy, loose grouping of likeminded individuals o As a result, attained wealth and fame while arousing antipathy o Thrasymachus Socrates philosophy is a process of critical selfexamination with the purpose being to arrive at correct principles of judging; theory on how each one of us ought to examine hisher life, 4 basic principles (p 6): o 1. an unexamined life is not worth living = value statement, critical self examination o 2. Principles of thoughtaction that must be followed to live a good life, objective, true for all men and women whenever and wherever they may live o 3. everyone already has truthknowledge within because they are part of nature, revealed only through relentless critical selfexamination o 4. teachers may ask questions that lead to beginning selfexamination, guide the process in its early stages Socratic method question and answer, uses irony towards those who do not admit they are ignorantconfused o Reach a deeper insight into the principles of truth and goodness
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