WOH 2012 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Livingsocial, Ruling Class, Zoroastrianism

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5 Apr 2016
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World Civilizations WOH 2012 Mid Term Study Guide (Chapters 1 to Chapter 8)
Key Terms / Events / Individuals:
Complex Societies (key change)
Stages of Complex Societies (SAQ)
Villages
Towns
Cities
States
Civilizations
Key Factors that led to the development of complex societies (SAQ)
Surplus food leads to the rise of towns and cities
Non farming occupations lead of the production of goods, arts, crafts, and
led
Organized religions
Centralized authority (rulers)
Complex governments
Agricultural Revolution (why) (key end results)
Population growth
Climate change (warming weather)
Impact of Agriculture
Egyptian Civilizations
Pyramids (why build?) (How did they build them?) (symbol) (SAQ)
The importance of the afterlife and maintaining an ordered universe
Government (kingdom) wanted to show its power and authority
To inspire awe, respect and a sense of legitimacy to the ruler (Pharaoh)
Build a sense of community and maintain public order (keep subjects
under control)
Key to growth & stability
Location/geography and environment
The Nile “heart of Egypt”
Gift of the Nile (dual impacts)
Predictable floods
Dual impacts
oSurplus food
oStable population
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Defining Elements of Civilization
Powerful centralized government
oBecause there’s was only one manager/ruler
Pharaoh “representation of God"
oRole: maintain order in the living world: balance underworld & living world
Ma’at :the idea of having a balanced universe
Key Theme & why (early Egypt)
Growth without development
oNarrow valley
oPredictable flood
oNo oppression t authority
o“if it ain’t broke don’t fix it”
Pharaoh (Institution: why)
Absolute rule as long as he keep the order of the Ma’at
Old Kingdom (foundations)
Foundation of Egyptain civilizations
Institution of the pharaoh
oAbsolute power as long as he keep order of the Ma’at
Writing system (hieroglyphic and papyrus)
Creation of the step pyramids (Imhotep)
Imhotep (step pyramid)
First individual to create step pyramids
Step pyramids: prototype for future pyramid
Shows the power of the pharaoh
Middle Kingdom (characteristics)
Middle kingdom is when Egypt becomes a civilization
oThe pharaoh becomes undivided
oThe role added to the pharaoh
Keeping the Ma’at
Pharaoh becomes the Shepard of the kingdom (becomes care taker
of the kingdom) EXPLICT {could lose that power}
oPeriod of trade (development of external trade networks)
Because the Nile was unreliable they started to trade
Middle kingdom was ended by Hyksos invaders
oConquered Egypt for a short period of time
Foreign Invasion
(why)
Technology gap
Trade network have created the situation for invasion
(impact)
They became more aware of threats
Changed their outlook
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Built a stronger military
Adopted chariots
New Kingdom (key developments)
Expansion/conquest
Technological improvement
Pharaoh takes on new role “Warlord” {commander and chief of the military}
Assimilation {at the period Egypt became an empire}
New pharaoh (Thutmose) tried to assimilate the people to build a bigger kingdom
oLoyal subjects
Shang China
Foundations
First written records of china history
A metal industry based on copper, pottery making, walled towns, and divination using
animal bones
No major army because they were isolated
State / Government (characteristics)
Theocracy and hereditary rulers, bureaucracy and moving the capital (keep an eye on
everyone)
Keys to economy
Agriculture, tribute
Metal work
Self-efficient and self-contained was a big impact on the Shang dynasty
Began the writing system
Society (keys / characteristics)
Writing (use of writing, advances of writing)
Ancestor cult (worship of ancestors)
Large scale metallurgy
Elaborate rituals
Social hierarchy
Southwest Asia Empires
Neo-Assyrian Empire (key defining features)
Deportation
Ridged social hierarchy
Forced labor
Two parts of empire
Ashur (Land of Ashur)
Assyrian descendant (heart of empire)
Conquered people (yoke)
Ideology
Expansion (expand)
Inequality (all led to inequality)
Exploration (explored people)
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