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Lecture 35

ZOO 3733C Lecture 35: Exam 5 Notes Pt. 1
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Department
Zoology
Course
ZOO 3733C
Professor
Mohtashem Samsam
Semester
Spring

Description
ZOO 3733 Exam 5 Notes The brain and spinal cord are both covered by three layers of meninges: Dura mater (most superficial), arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The brain and spinal cord are suspended in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space. CSF is produced in the choroid plexus of the brain There are 2 primary types of cells of the nervous system: Neurons: transmit electrical signals and are found in gray matter of the CNS and ganglia Neuroglial cells (Support cells): nonexcitable cells which surround and wrap neurons. These cells provide support for neurons and cover their nonsynaptic regions Central Nervous System neuroglial cells: Astrocytes most abundant glial cell type, which absorb and release ions to control the environment around neurons Microgliasmallestand least abundantphagocytes.Theyarethe macrophages ofthe CNS Ependymal cells line the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths in the CNS Peripheral Nervous System neuroglial cells: Satellite cells surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells surround axons in the PNS and form myelin sheaths around axons of the PNS Sensory (afferent: towards the CNS) signals picked up by sensor receptors carries by nerve fibers of the PNS towards the CNS Motor (efferent: away from the CNS) signals are carried away from the CNS and innervate muscles and glands Monosynaptic reflexes are the simplest and fastest of all reflexes. EX: kneejerk reflex Polysynaptic reflexes are more common and have an interneuron between the sensory and motor neurons. EX: withdrawal reflexes
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