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Lecture 36

ZOO 3733C Lecture 36: Exam 5 Notes (Eye and Ear)

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ZOO 3733C
Mohtashem Samsam

ZOO 3733 Eye and Ear (Exam 5 Notes) Eye Lacrimal apparatus: lacrimal gland produces tears which are collected in the medial side of the eye and through puncta lacrimalia (openings on the medial sides of eyelids) to the lacrimal canal Miosis: constricts the pupil Mydriasis: dilates the pupil Extraocular muscles of the eye are innervated by CN III except for the superior oblique (CN IV) and the lateral rectus (CN VI) muscles. The medial rectus muscles produces adduction, while the lateralrectusmuscleproducesabduction.Thesuperiorobliquemusclesproducesdepressionand intorsion (internal rotation) and the inferior oblique muscle produces elevation and extortion (lateral rotation). Levator palpebrae superioris is innervated 70 by CN III and 30 by sympathetic nerves. The EdingerWestphal nucleus of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) innervates all intrinsic eye muscles Paralysis of a single eye muscle causes double vision (diplopia) The anterior and posterior chambers of the eye are suspended in aqueous humor, and the interior of the eye is suspended in vitreous humor The eye contains 3 layers: sclera (fibrous layer), uvea (forming the choroid layer, vascular), and the retina (nervous layer) The blood supply of the eye arises from the ophthalmic artery: ciliary and central retinal arteries The macula is the region of greatest visual acuity and contains a yellowish pit called the fovea centralis The retina consists of 4 layers: 1st containing nerve axons that collect at the optic disk. 2nd is composed of ganglion cells, 3rd of bipolar cells, and 4th of light sensitive rod and cone cells (neuroepithelium) Cataracts: progressive degeneration and opacity of the lens which leads to impaired vision or blindness Glaucoma: optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cell loss, and blindness due to impaired drainage of the aqueoushumor from Schlemms Canal; which, leads to increased intraocular pressure and increased retinal blood flow Papilledema: when the optic disk bulges outward due to increased intracranial pressure Orbicularis oculi muscle is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII)
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