History to Archaeology.pdf

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University of California - Los Angeles
Dr.Greg Schachner

History to Archaeology 2013 10月 2 11:46 • Arch can be defined as the study of the human past from material remains A sub-field of anthropology • Arch studies the material culture, the technology(tools, material remains); but also non-material traces(literature/ritual practice/dance/music…). These mark thehuman experience • How & Why questions: How(cultural history): how did people settle the globe? Why(culture process): why did/do societies change through time? Modern Archaeology is question-driven (science) • World prehistory study:view human development in longterm Ex. The beginning of agriculture, the development of cities… agriculture is important cause it led to the spread of sedentary societies and laid the foundation of the complex societies, urbanization and states Antiquarianism in Europe (1500s-1800s) • Begin during the Renaissance in Italy out of interest in ancient Greece and Rome, focus on art & architecture • Antiquarians are being constrained by Church/Pope to interpret through key texts(Bible, or classical authors like Aristotle & folklore), enquiry focused on debates and speculation rather than on experiment or the direct observation of nature and the material world • Initially thought young earth(created roughly 4000 BC) Led to excavations at Pompeii by the early 1700s Inspired to other literate biblical civilizations (Egyptology, Assyriology) • Around 1500s, key developments: 1) invention of movable metal type and the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg Books cheaper and more readily available, more people learning 2) economy expands, overseas voyages brought knowledge of diverse culture and societies, new curiosity about human societies and technol
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