Archaeology Explanation.pdf

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Dr.Greg Schachner

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Archaeology Explanation 2013年10月2日 9:49 • Diverse explanatory frameworks Early period(late 1800s to 1960) of professional archaeology focused on time-space systematics When and where? Explanatory period post 1960 How and why? • Americanist archaeology Anthropologybegan as an academic discipline in late 1800s in US Focused on study of American Indians • American Indians Early explanations based o antiquarianideals - all people in written record Myth of the Mound builders: 1) Used as justification for removal of American Indians 2) Thomas Jefferson conducted scientific excavations in 1784 (Adena mound, west Virginia) • Direct historical approach Questions solved around Civil War time 1800s working blind, written records with date and sites and they can read them Work directly back from archaeological sites occupied in the historic record to understand link to prehistoric period Associated with Bureau of American Ethnology - founded1879 Cyrus Thomas studied mound sites in 1880s(read written records) Various expeditions sent to Southwest, Mesoamerica, South America One known date, dig down, lower in ground, older, but not how much earlier, not the era or age or specific time period • Developing chronology New excavation methods in US in 1910s Stratigraphy: natural changes, the soil, wet and dry, tree rings Seriation: ordering artifacts based on changes in physical styles Supported direct historical approach with stronger empirical evidence Began in Southwest US: A.V. Kidder & Nels Nelson • Culture History 1900-1960s Anthropologistsdealing with each 4 parts, archaeological cultures parallel to anthropological culture areas Alfred Kroeber: American Indian culture areas(geological difference makes cultural difference and linguistic difference, CA has hundredsof languages, diverse culture) Increased field research Primary goal of recording sequence of cultures over time and across space Where and when? • Cultural Ecology One of
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