ANTHRO 33 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Boston Accent, Southern American English, Multilingualism

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6 Feb 2017
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Lecture 10
Goffman
Footing: a change in stance, tone, or alteration in the social capacities of the persons present
Participant roles
Complicating idea of speaker and hearer
Hearer
(Un)ratified participants
Subordinate conversation
Response cries
Participant status and participant framework
Audiences
Back-channeling: things you do to let your interlocutor know that you're listening
Institutional roles
Speaker, animator, author, principal
o Animator: person doing the speaking, texting, etc.
o Author: person who wrote the words
o Principal: person who has highest stake in what is being said
o Possible to be all 4 @ once, but also possible to be only 1
o Reading aloud in class
o Speaker: teacher and the student reading (teacher can dictate others to become speakers
while maintaining the footing of the primary speaker)
o Animator: student reading
o Author: textbook author
o Principal: teacher
Deixis/Deictics: things that are shifting in speech such as tense, pronouns, etc.
o Often involved in embedding
Embedded speech: unrestricted time and place within a conversation
o Referring to multiple times, places, etc. in the same conversation/sentence
Reported speech: quoting/reporting someone else's speech
Figures: "person" who isn't there, often connected to a stereotype
o "You know how Los Angelinos are"
o Los Angelino is the figure
Multilingualism and Globalization
Multilingualism is "unremarkable" aka very common
Hard to draw lines between languages, dialect, etc.
"A language is a dialect with an army and a navy"
o Language is connected to/enforced by governments, states, etc.
Language and the nation state
Language: mutually intelligible system of communication
Dialect: variety of a language
o English
o Southern speech
o AAVE
o Boston accent
Register: spoken in particular contexts
Dialect and register often denote higher and lower language statuses
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