ANTHRO 33 Lecture 13: UCLA Anthro 33 Lecture 13

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8 Feb 2017
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Lecture 13
A Short History of English
Language contact and change is a social process
Historical processes and contact
o Norman conquest (French)
o Anglo-Saxons
o Bible translated into English
o Language of science
o Shakespeare
o Dictionaries
o Native American
Monoglot standard: language ideology that each nation should speak a single national language
Performance defined in opposition to competence (Chomsky v. Linguistic Anthro)
o Competence/Langue: abstract and unconscious knowledge of the language we speak
o Performance/Parole: putting grammatical rules into practice, often imperfectly
o Chomsky defines competence as an ideal speaker with perfect grammar, while performance
is the actual speaking taking into account surrounding factors and mistakes
Responses to Chomsky
o Redefined "competence"
o Reversing relationship between competence and performance (performance more
important)
o Rejecting distinction altogether
Performativity
o Doing things with words
o Ability of some utterances to do something merely by saying them
o Words can be more than words
Speech Act Theory
Developed by Austin and Searle
Trying to shift understanding of speech from focus on syntax to focus on social
Constatives: stating or saying something
Performatives: doing something by saying something
3 categories of utterances (often overlap)
o Locution: the stating of something
"I was born in Washington D.C."
Can be true or false
o Illocution: doing something instantaneously by virtue of stating it
Involve social force
Performatives
Not true or false
Felicitous or infelicitous
Happy or unhappy
o Perlocution: consequences of having stated something
5 kinds of Illocution (speech acts)
o Verdictives: give verdict
o Exercitives: exercising power, rights, influence
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