History of Modern Thought Complete Lecture Notes.docx

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General Education Clusters
Lynn Hunt

General Education Cluster 21 History of Modern ThoughtComplete Lecture NotesLecture notes 1020 John Locke 16321704Father a puritan lawyer Oxford educated Fond of Descartes Trained as a doctor Involved in politics and religious desputes Although he is not overtly pious he seems to believe in the judeo Christian god and invokeshim often Newton and locke were involved in looking over Boyles notes after boyle died They wonder did boyle have something hereLocke learned early on that many writers justified the authority of the king Grounded power of king in the power of father in the family Drew parallel between family and political entity Theorists who wanted to support Charles II and create an absulte monarchy At this time every major power spaain france was an abso Monarchy 1680s in Europe England and the continent esp low countries England france was a period of crisis This is source of euro EnlightenmentSource of crisis Charles ii younger brother was james ii James ii raised catholic by devout mother As Charles ages and has no legitimate children It became clear to the people who were worried about the state of Protestantism and the limited authority of govt became convinced that james ii would undo the reforms and eliminate protestant influence Would also undo the rights of parliament which had been established and ry to create abs monarchyKing Louis 14 in france did something hed always wanted to do hed always BEENannoyed by Protestantism Believed in 1 king 1 faith 1685 louis 14 revokes the edict of nantes This edict had granted limited tolerance to French protestants In practice there were a good quarter million protestants in france In 1685 protestnts given 3 choices 1 convert to protestnatism retain your property and children 2 Go to prison 3 Not a real choice because it was illegal But you could choose to flee although this was difficult to do People left france and went to protestant parts of Europe like Geneva Berlin England new world heugenot villages in staten island and new York and such Most however went to the dutch republic How many protestants were left in france Maybe 150 thousandIn England even before the revocation of the edict of nantes there was a movement in which locke was involved to try to exclude James ii from the throne Locke was involved in this Leaders of this movement were people who were intellectual buddies of Locke Schaftsberry family Exclusion crisis failed With its failure the ring leaders had to get out of the coutnty Some escaped through sewers Johlocke also flees Europe due to concerns over his safety He went incognito to the dutch republic Lived indoors during the day so worried that james ii was hunting him down Only returns after the revolution of 168889 that dethrones james iiLeaders of parliament and the church were at the core of this conspiracy 7 people With William of Orange stadholder of the Dutch Republic Louis 14 wanted to eliminate Protestantism and conquer low countries William of orange needs british support to defend himself against French invasion There is no natural boundaries an invasion wouldve been easy William Orange married to daughter of james ii Parl had forced James and Charles to raise the children of james ii as protestants James a catholic his daughter protestant willam orange protestant William of orange ships a small dutch army in England Invades succesfuuly because people realize the dutch were coming and people supported them James was unpopular James II is so scared he throws away royal scepter and flees to paris Regroups gets help from Louis 14 tries to get his kingdom back During the revo locke returns in company of queen Mary Has been away 6 yrs Upon return meets newton reintroduces himself to british intellectual circlesglorious revolution168889 glorious because did not involve a lot of violence Parliament meets and declares William Orange as king of England William wants to be king and his wife to be queen But Parl is like wait up bro before we grant u the kingdomwe want certain gurantees These guarantees are still a part of English law Bill of rights which ensures trial by jury habeas corups Parl as independent body from the crown Before King could call and dismiss parl as he chooses Now parl is independent entity can call and dismiss itselfAct of toleration de jure toleration for all protestants In practice all sorts of groups achieve toleration Its within this context of the revolution that locke publishes in 1690 his 2 treatises of govt everyone read it as a justification for the revolution that had just occurred Only in 1950 did someone look at Lockes notes and realize that the 2 treatises of govt had been written before the revolution Had been written explicitly to advocate the revolution not just approve of it in retrospect This made it very radical Says to ppl you are justified to revolt against tyranny ndst 2 treatisethe one which is most read nowadays the 1 one is a lengthy ndrefutation of theorists who justify absolutism 2 treatise political power not derived from the role of the power nor the Role of biblical Adam He is also doing much much more Lockes account of man in the state of nature In addition to being a political ththeorist also wrote most important book on epistemology in the 18 centuryEssay on human understanding We will discuss next week He was more than just a political theorist Wrote influentially on education toleration epistemology He is looking for a unified theory When youre feeling superior to locke who is flabby compared to Hobbes remember Locke is trying to develop counter model to Hobbes not just on politics but into nature of human being place of humans in society1 of many difficulties of Locke is that he is searching for something not just trying to tell you thingsHobbes begins with of man Locke begins with of the state of nature starting with how people are Has a different vision of human nature than Hobbes Humans are free equal and endowed with the right to life liberty and property Quote 6 on page 3 How he is looking for a different model of the human being State of nature is a state of perfect human rights just as Hobbes said Though this be a state of liberty though it is not a state of license yet he has not liberty to destroy himself There is a law of nature to govern everyone living in the state of nature This law is reason It teaches all men who consult it that no one ought to harm another in his life liberty possessionsDifferences from Hobbes body is less mechanistic than Hobbes says People move as though inert physical entities Peoples desires bump into one another break down social order Lock says its not all that bad because there is reason so no one ought to harm one another This leads to Rousseau who thinks man is filled with pityDiffers from Hobbes in that Locke thinks man has reason Locke is obsessed with the question of law Living under state of nature but everyone is left to enforce their rights on their own although this is not to say conflict is inevitable If conflict does occur Locke doesnt think as Hobbes does that you need an absolute power Lack of a person to judge isnt a tragedy just an inconvenience According to Locke people contract to form civil society so its easier to judge peoples rights He thinks people give up limited rights not all the rights Places a huge emphasis on the social sphere civil society Organizations bigger than the family Has a vision of a much more social world Responsibility of authority is to protect society but not at the expense of the crucial things the foundation of society based upon property rights What a bourgeois motherfuckerLocke believes life and liberty are like possessions More emphasis on property than Hobbes Hobbes saysno property unless a sovereign protects your right to have it Hobbes assumes theres property Locke says since property is foundation of your life of the social order property is actually a bulwark against state authority Beginning of Liberal tradition idea that govt doesnt have all the power Property rights protect you against state power Because property is the foundation of liberty This means that Locke is the guy people have to argue with when they get upset at property In chapter three page 89 he takes the state of nature a concept from Hobbes identifies it with absolute monarchy You better actually read these pages and figure out your shit as regards Monarchy because locke is against monarchy but for a few minutes you had yourself convinced he was for itSavages thought of by Europeans as lacking government entirely Locke sayslook at America America used by Locke as thought experimentWhat is property Anything you mix with some part of yourself Labor theory of valueYou are lying on the ground you are collecting acorns You mix your labor with it by collecting them hence they are yours Marx adopts this view of property Then he saysits only ok while you have enough if you waste anything that is unacceptable Should have more property than you can benefit from In this casewhy do people strive to have more property than you can use Because you have invented money Why do some people have more property than others Now you have to askhow does money work how does credit workLocke breaks it down to its original elements What is money It depends on the tacit agreement of men to value it Money introduces the possibility to have very large possessions inequality Money requires authority to justify and uphold its value Govt must respect life liberty and property You can revolt p 87 if govt fails to respect these rights
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