HIST 8B Lecture 16: 02/26/2016 History Lecture

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Garcia Garagarza

find more resources at oneclass.com 02/26/2016 History Lecture Violetta Parra Gracias a la Vida Victora Jara Rafael Trujillo ● Dictator of Dominican Republic (1930-1961) ● Rose through the National Guard established by the US Marines ● US granted independence to D.R but made it a protectorate ○ supported landed oligarchic elite and utilized military ○ export republic geared towards the benefits of the US ○ imposing economic conservatism: landowner oligarchy depending on sugarcane export economy ■ rule ruthlessly over mass of peasants ■ US cannot justify these occupations with the colonial reasoning ● create a facade of a parliamentary republic with a strong army that will decide for the country with facade of republican elements ■ fake elections ● US Army occupies Dominican Republic under claim that D.R should pay debt ● 50,000 people die under Dominican Republic ○ disappeared, jailed, tortured ● Trujillo outlaws every other opponent political party ○ Partido Dominicano: personal property of the dictator Trujillo ■ every government employee had to pay for the party ● if you opposed, you were killed ● Trujillo names himself Supreme Power ○ renames the capital Trujillo ○ “Trujillo on Earth and God in Heaven” ● Trujillo reelected in fake elections ● Introduced the death quads ○ Los 42 ○ kill opponents in drive by shootings ○ el carro de la muerte ○ armed with machine guns ● The Military Intelligence Service ● Trujillo created official policy of racial discrimination against Haitian immigrants ● When economic trouble arises, society reacts with xenophobia ● Blame the Haitian immigrants ● The Parsley Massacre: organized a massacre of 30,000 Haitian immigrants ● Expedition to topple Trujillo ○ Fidel involved in expedition ● 1959: Castro sends plane to D.R ○ fails ● Trujillo was a feudal lord find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ○ family aristocratic owner ○ ambush car kills Trujillo ■ a puppet of Trujillo succeeded him (Juan Bosch), then military takes over remains in power until 2005 Chile (1924-1938) ● Most of the regimes in South America become militarily controlled and exploited by USA ○ erosion of republican gov ○ fascist ideology ○ what are the economic conditions that propitiated the political conditions? ● Chile achieved its independence very early ○ oligarchy was in a consensus ○ fast consensus on how to conduct parliamentary politics ○ phenomenon of a well organized military ○ regional military power ○ strong rivalry with Argentina for tip of the southern cone ○ some political stability ○ secure, important export economy products ■ guano, copper ● 1924: army coup de’tat in favor of a progressive leader Arturo Alessandri ○ Alessandri refuses to take power via coup de’tat and leaves to Italy ○ spoils of the export economy begin to be questioned ○ Alessandri returns in 1925 to draft a new constitution: gave increased power to executive gov and allowed for increased state intervention in economy and society ● 1920s: inflation, unrest, social turmoil ○ 1000 workers massacred in mine ○ trend of workers demanding for wages and rights ■ Gov brutalizes and represses workers ● Advanced economic program through state intervention ● State partners with USA in nitrate industry ○ state competition and partnership with US ● Parliamentary politics remain strong ○ modern parties are part of political life ● Early 30s: Socialists win elections ○ allowed only for a few days ○ progressive party then returns to power ○ happened by the creation of an alliance under one party ■ La Frente Popular (the Popular Front) ● La Frente Popular ○ leftist organizations ○ against Catholic conservative oligarchy ○ discredit capitalism ● 1938: Pedro Aguirre Cerda becomes president under the Popular Front ○ create national industries for the internal ma
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