JEWISH M142 Lecture 4: An Israeli Identity

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Jewish Studies
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Immigration into Israel: Aliyah The Law of Return (741950) Creation of a legal mechanism to absorb Jews from around the world despite their cultural differences o Are not necessarily Zionist Zionism is a broad conceptprinciple that can be iterated in multiple forms o Linked to Declaration of Independence (48): The Jewish State would open the gates of the homeland wide to every Jew Previous restrictions under British Mandate Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an oleh o Who is Jewish? Is it a national or religious category? UN resolution considers it a national category o Who has the right to determine who is Jewish? o Religious or civil definition? o Oleh = immigrant olim = immigrate Knesset did not clearly define who is Jewish or who can decide an individual is Jewish until 1958 o Amendment no. 2 (1970): Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism; Grandchildren and their families o Complex political and religious question because of different denominations within Judaism o Massive change in the 1990s especially with the immigration of Russian Jews and Ethiopians Chief Rabbinate of Israel o Est. in 1920s o Bureaucratic in nature o Many groups do not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbinate because they do not buy the concept of Zionism Israel as a refuge even for nonadherents of Zionism o Survivors of the Holocaust o Jewish citizens of Arab and Muslim countries who increasingly became shunned due to the War of Independence (1948) Nationality Law (1952) Citizenship by: Return (incl. <1948) Birth Naturalization Residence o Residence: Applies to individuals registered as inhabitants under Registration of Inhabitants Ordinance (1949) If an individual moved to Yishuv but ended up outside during War of Independence, i.e. Palestinian refugees, they are not counted Institutional bias towards Jews Statism: Mamlakhtiyut Ideology that seeks to go beyond political disagreements and establish sense of fraternity o State is not merely a mean to an end but an end in and of itself Establish ethos of Israel o Had to find a way to integrate diverse group of individuals and immigrants o Two main parties at this point in time: Mapai vs Herut i.e. BenGurion vs Begin (former leader of Irgun) UniversalismParticularism
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