JEWISH M142 Lecture 5: Remembering the Holocaust

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Jewish Studies

Israel in the 50s • The Red Rock/Petra: See Petra in Jordan as a sense of adventurousness and individualism Suez Crisis / Operation Musketeer (Kadesh) • Suez Canal: Connects Mediterranean to Red Sea and Indian Ocean o 1956: Nasser nationalized Suez Canal Company. Blocked Israeli ships from using the Suez Canal and entering Gulf of Aqaba to access port city of Eilat. o Egyptian closure of the Straits of Tiran and supported Palestinian Fedayeen raids from Gaza • Global Context: Cold War and Decolonization of the ME • First war between Arab-Israelis after the 1948 War of Independence • International crisis that highlighted the role of the ME on the international agenda • US: Decided against financing the construction of the Aswan High Dam o Pushed Egypt into arm of the Soviets o Egypt is one of the biggest Arab states • Nasser’s support of Algerian nationalists agitating for independence from French • Sevres Protocol o Fight Egypt to reopen Suez Canal o Committed Israel to an offensive on October 29 o British and French appeals for a cease-fire and an Egyptian withdrawal 10mi of the Canal o British and French working for themselves o Anglo-French hostilities against Egypt would begin on October 31 • British saw that they had to fight Egypt o Ironic because UK administered Palestine Mandate and abstained from the 1947 UN vote • Israel took over entire Sinai Peninsula o Escalated international tensions as it dragged in the USSR and US o Israel under strong international pressure to withdraw o Nov 4: USSR invaded Budapest because Hungary wanted to increase autonomy from Moscow | UN calls on forces to withdraw from Sinai Peninsula • Potential nuclear war between USSR and US • Nov 8: Ben Gurion announced that Israel is willing to withdraw Consequences of Sinai Crisis • UN Emergency Force in Sinai and Gaza Strip o Supposed international force to keep the Egyptian and Israel
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