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Lecture 8

LING 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cleft Sentence, Pronoun

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Yael Sharvit

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Lecture 08: Syntax
Review: various syntactic rules, a rule for forming S and rules for forming NPs, VPs,
and PPs.
Syntax: S--NP VP. NParticle N; VPV NP.
How do we know that these are the right set of rules?
Eg. Sarticle NV NP: [The] [cat hates] [the dog].
It makes the article stand alone, but it should be part of the noun phrase.
Correct system: SNP VP.
[󵛷󵛵󵜈 󵛼󵛵󵜈󵛹󵜇] 󵛽󵜇 󵜂󵜃󵜈 󵛵 󵛷󵜃󵜂󵜇󵜈󵛽󵜈󵜉󵛹󵜂󵜈: 󵛽󵜈 󵛸󵜃󵛹󵜇󵜂’󵜈 󵜄󵛵󵜇󵜇 󵜈󵛼󵛹 󵛷󵜃󵜂󵜇󵜈󵛽󵜈󵜉󵛹󵜂󵜈 󵜈󵛹󵜇󵜈. 󵛘󵛹󵛺󵛽󵜂󵛹 󵛵 󵜀󵛹󵛻󵛽󵜈󵛽󵜁󵛵󵜈󵛹
A sequence of words that intuitively belong together in S.
Constituency tests: 1. Question formation; 2. Clefting; 3. Pronoun substitution;
󵛜󵜃w 󵛸󵜃 w󵛹 󵛸󵛹󵛷󵛽󵛸󵛹 [󵜈󵛼󵛹 󵛷󵛵󵜈] 󵛽󵜇 w󵛼󵛽󵜀󵛹 [󵛷󵛵󵜈 󵛼󵛵󵜈󵛹󵜇] 󵛽󵜇󵜂’󵜈?
1. Question formation
If a question can be formed of S whose answer is X, then X is a constituent of S.
Eg. Who hates the dog? The cat. Who does the cat hate? The dog. What does the
cat do? Hates the dog.
However, no question can be formed whose answer is [cat hates]. Therefore, [cat
hates] are not constituent.
We evaluate whether an expression passes the test through a sentence and question.
But we should try to preserve the meaning and not change it.
2. Clefting
If S can be paraphrased as [It is X that Y]: X is a constituent of S.
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