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Lecture 2

MCD BIO 90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Transcription Factor, Teratoma, Personalized Medicine

Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology
Course Code
Mitra Hooshmand

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Gene Expression and Transcription Factors
Gene Expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a
functional gene product.
Transcription Factors are proteins that help turn specific genes "on" or "off" by binding to nearby
We all have the same DNA in the nucleus of every cell. Depending on the function of the cell, different
part of this string of DNA is read. The parts that are read are decided by the Gene Expression, which is
decided by the transcription factors. Transcription factors allow cells to perform logic operations and
combine different sources of information to "decide" whether to express a gene.
Transcription factors control the expression of genes that maintain ES cells pluripotent. Other
transcription factors can drive an adult cell into becoming a induced pluripotent cell.
Better Explanation:
Transcription factors make transcription and translation happen.
Receptors are found in the membrane and receive signals that fit in with the type of molecule. For
example, Cytokine receptors only accepts cytokine.
Receptors receive signal
Binding releases transcript factor into cell.
Transcription factor activates when enters nucleus.
Transcription factor causes DNA to become RNA (transcription)
RNA become protein (Translation) and turns gene on.
Gene expression refers to all of the genes that are on.
The reading of gene expression decides the type of cell.
When cells are being manipulated, different transcription factors are "injected" into the cell.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells - iPS
This is a cell taken from any tissue from a child or adult organism that has been genetically modified to
behave like an embryonic stem cell.
This is a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
Not using embryos: the ethical turmoil of this topic is removed.
Personalized medicine: immuno-repressive drugs are no longer needed because, theoretically,
your body will welcome a cell that is yours.
These cells cannot be put directly into the place a treatment, because it causes a teratoma. A teratoma
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Wednesday, January 17, 2018
1:29 PM
Stem Cells Page 1
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