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Lecture 17

PHYSCI 5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Blood Vessel, Endothelium, ChylomicronPremium


Department
Physiological Science
Course Code
PHYSCI 5
Professor
Esdin, J.
Lecture
17

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Lecture 17 (Week 6 - 2)
No Lecture Friday!
Chapter 7 - Diseases of the Heart (Cardiovascular Diseases)
Before, we spoke of a normally functioning heart. Now, we will focus on what happens to a
diseased heart (lifestyle diseases)
Quick recap: The cardiovascular system has 3 components, the heart (pump), blood vessels
(conduit), and blood (fluid).
The Heart
Blood pressure is the friction of the blood passing through the blood vessels
Blood pressure comes from the contraction of the heart - every time the heart contracts,
the blood pressure increases, and when it relaxes it decreases
Heart contracts: Systole (high blood pressure)
Heart relaxes: Diastole (low blood pressure)
120/80 is normal blood pressure
Hypertension: high blood pressure - when blood pressure is 140/90 or greater - may
change to 135/90
Can be caused by extra sodium, stress
Higher blood pressure for a long period of time means higher friction
In people with hypertension, the constant friction will damage the endothelial
cells of the inner layer of the blood vessel
When the endothelial cells are damaged, the blood vessels do not expand
properly, which means that blood vessels are at a risk of bursting
If the coronary blood vessels burst, it leads to disaster - heart attack!
If the blood vessels that supply the brain burst, it leads to a stroke
Exercise enhances the release of nitric oxide - making our blood vessels more
flexible
What is in the Blood?
Atherosclerosis - hardening of blood vessels due to fat deposits
Caused by dietary issues
Fat travels in the blood in vesicles
2 types - triglycerides and cholesterol
Small intestine packages fat - it outputs a vesicle called a chylomicron
These vesicles travel in the circulation
Dietary fat is packed in the small intestine
The liver processes the fat, and can also make/produce fat
Fat that we eat - exogenous (coming from the outside)
Fat that the liver produces - endogenous (coming from in the
body)
These 2 fats are not the same
The liver outputs 2 main types of fat (chylomicrons come from the small intestine)
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