22 February 2011
Psych 178 – Lecture 14
The Person as a Scientist
• Pick something that has generality and can be applied across many situations.
• You usually only want to come up with theories only when something negative happens. Particularly when
they are unexpected.
o Exam failure
o Social rejection
• Covariation – does this happen often in other situations? Maybe it is me
• Social norms – part of covariation
• Base rates
• Hedonic biases – we do not actually know other people so we make up things that make us feel better.
• Pluralistic ignorance
• Local focus – compare yourself to people who are near you and not across all different people
• Cause of Exam Failure:
o Lack of ability
o Low effort
o Poor professor
o Noisy roommates
o Bus was late
o Working late/Need money
• Cause of Social Rejection:
o Not attractive
o Poor personality
o Poor hygiene
o No time/Too busy
o Different interests/Incompatible
o Already taken
• Causes are infinite and range across different domains.
Construct (internal/personal) Contrast (external/environmental)
Lack of ability, low effort, anxiety , illness, not Bus was late, bad professor, noisy roommates, bus
attractive, poor personality, poor hygiene, different was late, poor, no time/busy
Construct (controllability) Contrast (I cannot control it)
Low effort, lack of hygiene, already taken(?) Lack of ability, poor professor, anxiety, illness, noisy
roommates, bus was late, need money, Construct (global) Contrast (non-global, does not translate to everything)
Lack of effort, lack of ability, anxiety, illness, noisPoor professor, different interests,
roommates, bus was late, need money,
Construct (stable) Contrast (unstable)
Noisy roommates, anxiety Poor professor, bus was late,
o Raising sales at the store someone worked at. – Employment
o Graduating high school
o Being accepted into UCLA
o Dance team won first place in a national competition
o Did poorly on the midterm, really increased studying and got a good grade in the class
• Pride requires an internal attribution. There has to be a success and you contributed to the success. Pride
requires an internal causal locus. Not internality, no pride. Same thing on the failure side. For you to have a
decrease in pride, you have to have caused that failure. If the cause is external, you may feel frustration or
anger but not shame or guilt. Pride requires that you have to be the cause, just as decreases in self
• Pride also does not have to be something you did personally but it could be the success of something or
someone you strongly identify with: when UCLA wins a basketball game, when your sibling does well in
science project. This is where your psychological self does well (the same goes for when your
psychological self does badly).
• Pride and esteem are connected with motivation.
• It is much harder to separate the causes above according to something other than me and not me because
the self construal is so powerful and important.
o Guilt about lying to his father about having many tattoos.
o Accidentally punctured younger brother’s eardrum with a key.