PSYCH 100A Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Dependent And Independent Variables, Random Assignment, Internal Validity
Course CodePSYCH 100A
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Thursday, January 9, 2020
-Anecdotal or Empirical Fact (experiment or observational studies)!
•Independent variables: can you randomly control!
•Causal attribution !
•Age + activity level —> weight gain!
-People behave in a way that is accordance with what is expected for them!
-Teacher expectations have a deep inﬂuence on student performance!
•Population, representative sample!
•Knowing someone’s value on the explanatory variable helps you make a better
guess about their value on the outcome variable!
•Sex and violence in TV programs does not serve well as advertisement!
•May or may not like the distribution of the population !
•Size N goes up, better reﬂect the population distribution !
-Experiment v.s. observational study!
-Random assignment v.s. random sampling!
•Sampling: everyone in the population has an equal chance of being included in the
sample —> increased generalizability, external validity!
•Assignment: everyone has an equal chance of being assigned to each treatment
condition. —> increased internal validity (causation)!
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