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Lecture 2

SOCIOL 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Auguste Comte, Natural And Legal Rights, Social Integration

3 pages41 viewsWinter 2019

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Molly Jacobs

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Origins of Sociology
Industrial Revolution
Horrible work conditions
American and French Revolution
Inalienable rights
Start of a democracy
Scientific Method
Objective way of studying nature
Led to a standard of how we understand a social world
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Suggested the scientific method could be applied to social world (positivism)
Coined the term sociology, meaning the study of society
Once society goes on course, what changes it? Why would we stay on course?
What causes the chaos?
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Engine of human history is class conflict
Society is made up of two classes
Bourgeoise: capitalist class (owns the mean of production)
Proletariat: working class, rank-and-file
Roots of human misery lies in class conflict and exploitation
Proposed classless society: everyone works only towards their ability
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Basis of sociology must be social facts
Found there are social factors that underlie suicide
Found people don’t take life for personal reasons
Found certain groups more likely to commit suicide
If we only look at human behavior in terms of the individual, we miss the social basis
Two types of social facts
Material facts (Ex. demographics)
Non-material facts (Ex. norms)
Within certain social groups are certain varying degrees of social integration
Social integration are people tied to social groups and individual at same time
Stressed the idea of structure: certain things won’t change over time
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Primarily known for work on capitalism and bureaucracy
Believed changes in religion brought about the rise of capitalism
Protestant ethic let them live fruitfully by saving money
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