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Lecture 1

SOCIOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Political Philosophy, Human Ecology, Muckraker

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Reformation (16th Century)
Industrial Revolution (19th Century)
Migration and Urbanization (19th and 20th Century)
Colonialism (16th to 20th Century)
Race and Racism (16th to 21st Century)
Two World Wars (1914-1918, 1939-1945)
Globalization (20th and 21st Century)
Ex: Max Weber + wife
Biographical Context :
Ex: Chicago School
Academic Context
Ex: Russian Revolution and Cold War (Communism)
Political Context
Taking Context into Account
How did Classics Become Classical?
Every text has to be interpreted from the point of view of the author in order to make sense of
it. The reader has to try to understand what the text meant when it was written, not what it
means today.
From the Author's Point of View:
The meaning of a word is determined by the way an author uses it. AN author who gives his
own definition to a particular word uses a concept. If two or more authors give different
meanings to one and the same word, they are using different concepts. The other way around,
authors can also give the same meaning to two different words, that is, they are using the same
Word versus Concept:
Always give an author the best possible reading and assume that what he writes makes sense,
unless proven otherwise. Look for the passages that are particularly strong not for those that
are particularly weak. If you want to criticize an author, always criticize him at his bes,t never at
his worst.
When in Doubt, for the Accused:
HERMENEUTICS: the method of interpreting texts, whether new or old, academic or non-academic. The
hermeneutic study of texts follows basic methodological principles.
How to Read the Classics?
Thursday, September 26, 2013
9:51 AM
SOCIOLOGY 101 Page 1

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

British Economics
German Idealistic Philosophy
French Revolution
French Socialism
Major Influences for Marx and Engels
Didn't have GDP (gross domestic product)
UK first to industrialize
Increase in Wealth during this time
Spinning Mule : a water-powered multiple spindle machine for spinning wool or cotton)
Believes this is what Industrial Age is about
Pin factory
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Father of Economics
Happens automatically
Unintended consequences of intentional actions
Invisible hand
Looked at division of labor
Adam Smith
Easier for division of labor
Outcome of division of labor
Personal and focuses on each others' interests
(human nature--Adam Smith)
That’s why we don't go at the disadvantage of others
Exchanges things with others
Technological Innovation and Division of Labor as a Driving Forces in the Increase of Wealth
Adam Smith
Friedrich Engels
Cause of Increasing Wealth:
Division of Labor
Cause of Increasing Wealth:
Technological Innovation
Description of Inequality:
Rich and Poor
Description of Inequality:
Capitalist vs. Worker
Explanation for Inequality:
Different amounts of talent and
Explanation for Inequality:
Different amounts of power and resulting
Grew up in a factory ___ in Germany (small town center for industrialism)
Friedrich Engels
Accounting for the Increase and Unequal Distribution of Wealth
People are lazy, don't put in enough effort because they are not educated properly
(working class) therefor has no morals
Have to instruct and help these people about how to live their lives
Bourgeois Point of View:
No power really
Working Class Point of View:
Why was the Wealth in Manchester Unequally Distributed?
Industrial Age
Tuesday, October 01, 2013
9:38 AM
SOCIOLOGY 101 Page 2

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We're selfish and self-interested
It's good because we all want different things and we'll be able to exchange with other people
We all start off the same and we are shaped by the way we are raised
All human beings have the same capacity to do any tasks
Division of labor
Criticism: doesn't really talk about how we get to the "marketplace" area
Adam Smith
Finds Hell upon Earth
Increase productivity is creating these horrible conditions that people are living in
Believes it’s a bad explanation of the world out there
Fredrich Engels
EXCHANGE VALUE: value you can get for the item when you exchange for it (like the sales price)
USE-VALUE: what it's useful for
Tuesday, October 01, 2013
4:12 PM
SOCIOLOGY 101 Page 3
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