Spring 2017- SPAN 42: Iberian Culture,
Lecture 2: The Roman Period
Highlighted = important for exams
Recap of Last Lecture:
- Geography: Iberian Peninsula (a “natural” unity), Hybrid culture due to
influences of many other cultures: North, South Europe, Middle East and Africa.
- Identities can change; therefore, the history part is the most important factor.
- History: the way people make certain decisions at certain time, in case of history
studies the past. History is also related to myth.
- When he speaks about the peninsula he says that it can be seen as a small
continent b/c of variety in climate, languages, and culture(traditions).
- National identity is made up of symbols- ex: the bull, the horse.
- Punic Wars: (2 Punic War) Romans vs Carthaginians = Roman victory
establishing Roman homogeneity in the Mediterranean for centuries. This is also
important because this is the first time that Hispania plays a central role in
history because many battles were fought on Hispania’s soil.
After Punic wars, Romans started conquest of Spain.
Long Enterprise, Lasted for two centuries, very fiery wars.
Viriato (myth, symbol, legend)
- First Spanish and Portuguese hero.
- He was killed in 139 b.C. by some of his men: traitors, paid by Romans
- He was part of a Celtiberian Tribe (Lusitania)
- Spanish and Portuguese symbol: “we only can be defeated by traitors from our
Numantia: Celtiberian city in central Iberia
- Celtiberians burnt the town down and killed themselves, rather than surrender
o Spanish Symbol: “Better to die than to surrender.”
- “Numantivo”: Spanish adjective, “Resistencia numantina”.
o Spanish Navy: ships called “Numancia”
Hispania now becomes part of the Roman empire in 38 b.C.
- Before Rome: many different tribes
- With Rome, for the first time, Iberian Peninsula is united under a single rule, a
single law, a single culture, and a single language. Hispania, part of a large empire, and
also enjoyed “Pax Romana”.
ROMANIZATION OF HISPANIA:
- Began about 200b.C and lasted for six centuries. Roman influence exceptionally
important Reached every single