CFD 3240 Lecture 22: Child Socialization Patterns of American Parents

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Child and Family Development
CFD 3240

Child Socialization Patterns of American Parents • Studies of childrearing patterns in the United States have led to the identification of six distinct patterns: o Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, traditional, indulgent, and indifferent o The 2 dimensions that distinguish among these 6 Patterns: ▪ Parental responsiveness ▪ Parental demandingness Authoritative Parents • Controlling and demanding, but also nurturing and communicative with their children • Do not expect unquestioned obedience • Are willing to explain to their children the reasons for expected behavior • Integrate the needs of the child with those of other family members Children of Authoritative Parents • Have more positive outcomes than children reared by authoritarian, permissive, indulgent, or indifferent parents • Also have high levels of academic achievement • Tend to be cooperative with peers, siblings, and adults • Are higher in psychosocial maturity reasoning ability, empathy, and altruism • Are less likely to exhibit behavior problems • Have the highest levels of self-actualization Authoritarian Parents • Have relations with their children that are hierarchical rather than democratic • A main goal of authoritarian parents is to obtain obedience from their children • They frequently use punishment and/or the threat of punishment • They often seek to shame their children into compliance • They also place value on keeping children “in their place,” by restricting children’s autonomy Children of Authoritarian Parents • Tend to be dependent, passive, and conforming, less self-assured, less creative, and less socially adept than other children • Are at risk for behavior problems such as substance abuse, crime, and delinquency • Alice Miller labeled authoritarian beliefs as “the poisonous pedagogy,” saying that: o “Such beliefs rob children of their human spirit and inhibit their normal emotional development.” Permissive Parents • Are no controlling and no demanding? • Exercise little restriction of child autonomy and have a general lack of routine and consistency • Also engage less in independence training of their children • Are not very well organized or effective in running their households • Tend to be self-effacing individuals who are insecure in their abilities to influence their children Children of Permissive Parents • Tend to lack impulse control
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