CD 4505 Lecture 1: Exam 1 REVIEW

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Communication Disorders
CD 4505

EXAM 1 REVIEW Chapters 1, 2, & 3 Taxonomies (know the entire slide – Chapter 2) • Three related systems—speech, language(literacy), and communication • Five language parameters—phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics • Three language domains—content, form, use • Two language levels—(sound/word, and sentence/discourse[conversation]) interacting with four communication modalities (listening, speaking, reading, writing) EBP & 5 steps • The ASC-A-E Five-Step Approach to EBP o Ask a question that is relevant to meeting a particular client’s or group’s needs. o Search for available evidence. o Critique the quality of the evidence. o Apply the evidence to one’s own practice. o Evaluate the effectiveness in terms of outcomes for a particular client or group. Cooperative goal setting (positive interdependence): Members perceive that they can attain their goal if and only if the other team members attain theirs. PICO  Person, Population, Problem, and Perspectives:  What do I know about my client as a whole person with a unique set of cultural-linguistic-familial experiences and perspectives for helping to prioritize targets for assessment and intervention?  What do I know about the population of children and adolescents who have the same or a similar diagnosis as this child?  What language and literacy problems are of greatest current concern to my client and those who know him or her best?  What can I learn through the perspectives of client, family, and teachers about cultural and curricular contexts and values?  Intervention:  What intervention procedures are most likely to achieve desired outcomes for this particular client, in terms of narrowing the gap between current abilities and needed abilities in the important contexts of the person’s life?  Comparison or Contrast:  What alternative assessment, prevention, or intervention approaches should I consider in contrast with the one I am leaning toward as best?  Outcomes:  What functional outcomes can be defined so as to be observable and measurable to provide evidence for how the intervention has worked for your client? Assessment/Intervention Questions Four Questions • Assessment o What does this curricular context require? o What does the student currently do? • Intervention o What might the student learn to do differently? (missed cues) o How should the task be modified or scaffolded?– how are we going to challenge them/build them on this level Context-based Assessment Context-based Intervention Inside Outside- 1. What does the 3. What might the child In context require? learn to do differently? - Out Outside Inside- 2. What does the child 4. How should the Out currently do? context be modified? In ________________________________________________ • Curriculum-based assessment o Assesses student performance within course content to determine student's instructional needs. o Is the child learning the social studies curriculum? • Curriculum-based language assessment/intervention o Does the student have the language skills to learn the curriculum? • “The goal in interviewing is to have participants talk about things of interest to them and to cover matters of importance to [you] in a way that allows participants to use their own concepts and terms” (Stainback & Stainback, 1988, p. 52) • Lists and labels about strengths and needs o What’s the best thing about school? o What’s the hardest/worst thing? • Anecdotes about specific events o When was the last time you felt “bored”? o “When the teacher explained the math lesson, and I didn’t know what to do.” ASHA pyramid Ia Meta-analysis > 1 RCT Ib Well designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) IIa Well designed controlled study without randomization IIb Well designed quasi-experimental study III Well designed non-experimental studies (correlational or case studies) IV Expert committee report, consensus conference, clinical experiences of respected authorities Ethnographic approaches  Ethnographic interviewing involves strategic questions to gain perspectives of others.  Participant observation involves watching and interacting to interpret social-cultural rules for participation and interaction.  Studying artifacts involves analysis of products for evidence of strengths and needs.  Interpreting multiple sources of data involves looking for deeper meanings and points of agreement, then asking informants whether interpretations match perceptions, a process ethnographers call triangulation. Phonemic awareness—a subcategory of PA that refers to the ability to detect and manipulate individual phonemes within words • Detecting word with different initial phoneme (odd one out) • Taking off initial of final sound (elision or deletion) • Switching initial and final sounds (transposition) • Segmenting the sounds in a word • Blending the sounds in a word 5 language parameters • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics Phonology—the sound system of language Phonemes • phone- individual token of a speech sound produced by an actual speaker • Phoneme- linguistic class recognized as a speech sound by all members of a speaking community; basic unit of language; a phoneme only changes meaning, it does not carry meaning; a speech sound category • Allophone- systematic variations of phonemes influenced by linguistic context; • Broad transcription- at the phoneme level • Narrow (close) transcription- also codes for allophones ( like the dark /l/ • Phonotatics- privileges of where particular phonemes can occur in a word (-ks at end but not at beginning) • Phonological awareness • Levels of metalinguistic awareness • Shallow– rhyming words in play, etc. • Deep— intentional manupulation of sounds in words, etc. • Phonemic awareness • Detecting word with different initial phoneme (odd one out) • Taking off initial of final sound (elision or deletion) • Switching initial and final sounds (transposition) • Segmenting the sounds in a word • Blending the sounds in a word • Phonics • Graphemes • Alphabetic principle (learned first)  orthographic principle (learned later) Morphology—the system of meaningful units of language • Morphemes—smallest unit of language(morpheme) • Inflectional v. derivational • Inflectional-inflect word forms to fit grammar in sentences • Derivational- prefix/suffix that make a new word form • Bound– must be attached to a root word vs. free– stand alone • MLU mean length utterance– quantifies syntax complexity • Cultural-linguistic influences • Variation in morphological use • Bias of MLU measures • Gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. • Playing on computers is fun. (-ing clause as Subject) • I like playing on computers (-ing clause as Object) • I work in that building(part of prepositional phrase).I like building things. • Look at that excellent painting. I like painting pictures • Her writing is good. I like writing novels. • Allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme, that is, when a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing meaning. The term allomorph explains the comprehension of phonological variations for specific morphemes.
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