CD 4505 Lecture 2: School-AgedExam2

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Communication Disorders
CD 4505

EXAM 2 REVIEW Chapters 8, 9, 10 & 11 Foundations of Assessment, Presentations: CAS, Hearing Loss ○ IDEA 2004​ ​(Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act) ​in 2004 ○ IEP ​(Individualized Education Plan) ■ ​what most children move to at 3 years of age after their IFSP ○ IFSP ​(Individualized Family Service Plan) ■ Info about the child’s status ■ Info about the family ■ Statement of the major outcomes expected to be achieved for the infant or toddler and the family, and the criteria, procedures, and timelines used to determine the degree to which progress toward achieving the outcomes in being made and whether modification or revisions of the outcomes or services are necessary. ■ Statement of specific early intervention services necessary to meet the unique needs of the infant or toddler and the family, including the frequency, intensity, and method of delivering services; ■ Statement of the natural environments in which early intervention services shall be appropriately provided, including a justification of the extent, of any, to which the services will not be provided in a natural environment. ■ The projected dates for initiation of services and the anticipated duration of services; ■ Identification of the service coordinator from the profession most immediately relevant to the infant’s and toddler’s or family’s needs who will be responsible for the implementation of the plan and coordination with other agencies and persons; and ■ Steps to be taken to support the transition of the toddler with a disability to to preschool or other appropriate services. ○ Service Delivery Environment ■ Hospital ■ Home-based (most natural) ■ Center or clinic based ■ Preschool based ○ Childhood Apraxia of Speech ■ Involves central motor planning difficulties affecting oral motor movement including speech, but without affecting peripheral reflexive function. It affects the accuracy and sequencing of phoneme production. ○ Biological/Environmental Risks ■ Biological ● Established right with highly predictable effects ● Secondary risks ● Low birth weight, adverse prenatal, perinatal & postnatal ■ Environmental ○ Life experiences ○ Often combined with other risks ○ May be an otherwise healthy baby ○ Ototoxicity- hearing loss ■ Typically medication induced; quality of being toxic to the ear (oto) specifically being allergic to the cochlea/auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system ○ Greenspan’s Stages and Ages ■ Floor Time(DIR): Turning in to Each Child ■ 4 stages 1) Engagement (0-8 months) ○ Alert to sights and sounds ○ Follows caregiver w eager eyes ○ Joyful smiles in response to interesting facial expressions ○ Will engage, disengage, reengage in short periods ○ Learning to trust, love, feel emotionally close 2) Two-way communication (6-18 months) ○ begins to respond to caregiver gestures and to gesture in return ○ initiates interactions and looks expectantly for response--points to show wants and desires ○ initiates comforting and closeness by pulling on leg or initiating hug ○ expresses anger by banging and throwing; later, by mumbling privately 3)​Shared Meanings (18-36 months) ○ engages in pretend play with others ○ engages adult in pretend dramas ○ Nurturing and care ○ Car crashing and monster chasing ○ Also enjoys playing alone ○ combines words and gestures – “me mad” “no bed” ○ communicates desire for closeness: word + gesture ○ can recover from anger and be cooperative 4) Emotional Thinking (3-5 years) ○ begins to distinguish real vs not real; logical ○ pretend play more complex; logical sequence ○ can follow rules and respond to limits; feels optimistic and confident ○ begins to reason about feelings and connect them to behaviors ○ knows what to say or do when to get a hug and other closeness ○ Greenspan and Wieder’s DIR, 2005 ■ Developmental ● understanding of the child’s emotional development relative to six developmental milestones—shared attention and regulation, engagement and relating, purposeful emotional interaction, social problem solving, creating ideas, and connecting ideas together and thinking logically ■ Individual Difference ● understanding of the child’s unique way of “taking in the world—sights, sounds, touch, etc.—and responding to it,” and how the “child’s individual differences can interfere with his or her ability to relate, communicate, and think” (p. 1) ■ Relationship Based ● parental interactions that fit the child’s state of development and individual differences ○ Joint Referencing/Joint Attention​: attending to the same object/following child’s lead during play ■ Parents bring objects in closer, shake them, and say “Oh look,” eliciting gaze at object (4-6 wks) ■ Infant follows visually parent’s bodily movement ■ Parent’s movement of object of focus (8 wks) ■ Infant can distinguish vocalizations directed to him or her and seek the source (3 months) ■ Infant can follow parent’s line of regard (i.e., direction of looking) and soon, the infant’s response quickens when the adult says “Look!” (4 months) ■ Infant may respond to parent’s use of object of event name and intonational pattern to establish joint reference (6 months) ○ Zone of Proximal Difference ■ The difference btwn what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help ■ Symbolization ■ using 1 object to represent another (i.e., a block as a car) ○ Decontextualization ■ using actions in a playful manner away from typical settings (i.e., playing school with a teacher and student) ○ Decentration ■ using actions to play that they are unable or not allowed to perform in real life (i.e., cooking, driving a car) ○ ​Millieu Teaching Techniques ■ Milieu procedures are typically used to increase the frequency of a child’s communicating a specific request, although they may be used to teach new communicative forms for vocabulary. Milieu techniques necessitate that the environment be arranged in such a way that the child is encouraged to initiate interactions. This ensures the child’s motivation, increasing the likelihood of success. Parents follow child’s lead and use prompts (i.e., time delay) to increase communication. Responsivity Education/ Prelinguistic Mileu Teaching ○ RE/PMT: An approach for children between 9 to 15 months of age who are functioning at developmental appropriate levels. If there are developmental delays, these children may be 2 to 3 years of age. ○ Transactional Model – social communication development “presumes that early social and communication development are facilitated by bidirectional, reciprocal in
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