The cocci of medical importance, gram cocci. Neisseriacea: tend to aggregate and seek mucus membranes on warm blooded animals. Identify species by carbohydrate usage: pathogenic species, neisseria gonorhoeae, neisseria meningitidis, gonorrhea, aggregated in pairs, bean shaped, flat side of bean is touching, no flagella, no spores, do have capsules, gram . Lipopolysaccharides: oxidase positive and catalase positive, can be aerobic (oxidative environment) or microaerophilic (low oxygen environment, do not survive well outside of host, gonorrhea and syphilis reported rates, drastic increase in rates of gonorrhea between 1970-76. Correlated with times of change in sexual norms. Exploration with multiple sex partners, free love, change to utilization of oral contraceptives as opposed to other methods with greater efficiency in reducing disease. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus: the organism, ferments only glucose (n. g. Utilizes oxygen to survive: evades host immune system by switching from one antigenic form to another.