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Lecture 8

PNB 2264 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Plane Joint, Carpal Bones, Chondroitin Sulfate


Department
Physiology and Neurobiology
Course Code
PNB 2264
Professor
crivello
Lecture
8

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What is a joint?
- Its where two bones come together
- Movement ranges from none to a great deal
- Strength ranges from great to little
- You can look at a join and predict how stable it is and how it moves
- Connective tissue stabilizes joints and limits types of movements allowed
Movement at joints
- Contraction of muscles can causes bones to move
- Bones move at junctions between bones
- Joints minimize friction, facilitate correct movements, provide protection
Classification of joints
- Name of bones
o Ex: gleohumeral, coxae-femur
- Type of joint (movement, type of connective tissue)
o Flexion or fibrous
- Common usage
o Ankle, elbow, etc
Formation
- Bone morphogen
-
Major human types
- Fibrous
o Sutures, gomphosis, syndesmosis
- Cartilaginous
o Synchondrosis, symphysis
- Synovial
o 6 different types
- differences type of connective tissue, fluid filled space
- possible to predict motion based on bone structure and connective tissue
fibrous
- fibrous connective tissue, no joint capsule, limited movement
o suture (synarthrosis)
sewn together
o syndesmoses
duct tape between bones
o gomphosis
like a christmas tree light
teeth joint with skull
Suture
- dense connective (collagen) tissue
- no joint cavity, no joint fluid
- different types depending on shape of bones as they come together
- only in the skull
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- look like seems
Syndesmosis
- slightly moveable less dense connective tissue
- found between the limb bones
o interosseous membrane (btw bones)
o ligaments btw bone, bones far apart
- example
o temporal and hyoid bone
- connects bones kind of long way
gomphosis
- binds teeth to the maxilla and mandible
- more mobile than suture and syndesmosis
- your teeth move when you chew
- think Christmas lights
Summarize
- fibrous joints value strength over movement
- they range from no movement (suture) to slight movement (gomphosis)
- bones can be far apart from each other (syndesmosis)
Cartilaginous joints
- cartilage
o fibrocartilage or hyaline
firm, whitish connective tissue
o more common in infants than adults 9remeber how bone frowth occurs)
o resilient, smooth, rubber-like padding
- allow more movement than fibrous
o synchondroses
o symphysis between the vertebral bodies
fibrocartilage (symphysis)
- fibrous and cartilaginous (elastic)
- contains type 1 and type 2 collagen
- examples
o pubis symphysis changes in pregnancy
o annulus fibrousus of intervertebral discs
o knee meniscus
o temporo-mandibular joint (jaw)
o tendon bone interface
- hyaline (synchondrosis)
o hyaline glass-like material, no nerves or blood vessels (avascular)
collagen type 2 and chondroitin sulfate
found on the end of long bones
o example
rib to sternum joints
epiphyseal growth plate
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