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Lecture 14

PNB 2264 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Axon Guidance, Olfactory Bulb, Macrophage


Department
Physiology and Neurobiology
Course Code
PNB 2264
Professor
crivello
Lecture
14

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Notes Day 14
Nervous System
Nervous system
- Maintenance of homeostasis keeping you alive
- Cell-to- cell communication
o Control and sensory; inside and outside of NS
- Sensory perception
o Pain, touch, small
- Integration wide range of sources
- Consciousness self aware
Divisions
- CNS central brain and spinal cord
o Protected by bone, CFS
o Afferent neurons inward, efferent neurons outward
Somatic and autonomic
- PNS everything else
o Not protected by bone, more easily damaged
Funny bone
o Ganglia collection of cell bodies
o Sensory cells transduce information
Nerves
- collection of axons
o like a coaxial cable
- afferent (inward) and efferent (outward)
o 12 cranial and 31 spinal
- autonomic (involuntary) and somatic (voluntary)
o parasympathetic, sympathetic
o motor neurons
Other anatomical points
- white matter myelinated axonal fibers
- grey matter cell bodies
- nuclei grey matter in CNS
- ganglia grey matter in PNS
- plexus - braided structure
- neurons previously covered
Neuroglia
- >50% of volume and supporting role
o internal environment
o communication
o guiding axons to right targets
o establish synapses
o blood-brain barrier
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o remove debris
o produce CFS and myelin
o generate electrical currents
o Take up NT and ions
Summarize
- The CNS is composed of the brain/spinal cord
- The PNS is everything else
- CNS/PNS collect information for the brain to integrate (sum up) information and make
decisions to support homeostasis
o What keeps us alive
Physiology
- Surround
o Make sure neurons stay in correct
- Nutrients and O2
o Ensure that they have all the nutrients they need
- Insulation
o Prevent them from touching each other
- Removal
o Pathogens and dead neurons
- Development
o Guiding axonal migration during early development
- Synaptic transmission
o Helping clear NT from synapse
o Releasing neuromodulators
o Releasing NT
Oligodendrocytes
- CNS myelin producing cells
- Myelin regulates growth of other axons
- Can myelinate up to 50 axons
- Make myelin and prevents axons from touching one another and shorting out
- Usually 1 mm of length
- Myelin contains protein that prevents axonal growth
- Cerebral palsy loss of these cells in brain
Astrocytes
- Most abundant
o Star shaped
- Surface coverage pia mater
- Limit solute movement into CNS
- Blood-brain barrier
- Regulation of CFS
Physiology
- Regulate external chemical environment
- Recycle NT
- Part of blood brain barrier
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