GLOBL 2 Lecture 2: Week 2 Lecture

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Global Studies

20th century - General Motors ● Manufacturers dominate ● Vertical, bureaucratic organization ● Production under one roof; minimal outsourcing ● National supply chain ● Big capital vs. big labor (unions strong) -> social contract ● Growing middle class 21st century - Walmart (Global Economy) ● Retailers dominate ● Horizontal, networked, “flexible” organization ● Production dispersed; large-scale outsourcing ● Global supply chain - search for factories around the world that could make products cheaper (competition) ● Big capital vs. fragmented labor (unions weak or non-existent) ● Shrinking middle class Global Extremes of Wealth and Poverty: A Growing Gap ● Bad for business ● Large companies are a huge funnel/control in the world’s economy ● Largest corporation is a retailer ● Other companies are energy/automobile companies Four Megatrends that are shaping our world ● Globalization - everything crosses borders ● The Disappearing Nation State - borders aren’t relevant anymore ● Global Climate Change ● Tribalism - when people are threatened, they turn towards their tribe ○ Tribalis, in its modern form: Nationalism - us vs. them Latin America ● Globalization goes back to the late 19th-20th century - U.S. had a strong investment in this region ● The New World - source of raw materials ● Hernan Cortes conquers the Aztec empire (Mexico, 1519-1521) ● Francisco Pizarro Conquers the Inca Empire in Peru, 1532 ○ Decapitate the empire; substitute Spanish rule for Inca rule ● Inca Empire (mid 1400s-1533) - Cuzco, Peru U.S. and Latin America ● Monroe Doctrine (1823) - U.S. Sphere of Influence: Europe, Hands off! ● Mexican-American War (1846-1848) ○ Porfirio Diaz ■ Fought in Mexican-American War ■ President of Mexico: 1876-1880, 1884-1911 ■ Overthrown during Mexican revolution ■ “Poor Mexico - So Far From God, So Close to the United States” ● Spanish-American War (1898): U.S. Maine sinking ● Since WW2, there have been over 50 U.S. military or CIA “interventions” into other nations: ○ Dominican Republic, 1965 ○ Cuba, 1959- ○ Chile, 1973 ○ Guatemala, 1953-1954 ○ Nicaraguae, 1978-1990 ○ Grenada, 1983 ○ Panama, 1989 ● Cuba: Castro overthrows batista dictatorship, 1959 ● Fidel Castro - revolutionary; detention camps; symbol for young activists ● U.S. led Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) - try to overthrow Castro ● Che Guevara: Iconic Figure of the Cuban Revolution ● Cuba ○ Poor, but healthy - extraordinary in public health ○ U.S. created a blockade causing Cubans to suffer economically; Venezuela supported Cuba after Russia’s downfall ● Chile ○ U.S. led coup by Augusto Pinochet; overthrows Salvador Allende Government (1973); successful economy, democracy ○ Allende – socialist, nationalized foreign firms – move foreigners out of their economy, seen as a threat ○ Chile (left wing) were executed or disappeared ○ Chile is again a democracy ○ U.S. intervention -> all great powers intervene ● Nicaragua ○ Sandinista Government Undermined by (illegal) U.S. support of “Contra” Forces ○ Sandinista were named after Sandino (part of the U.S. military) ○ Modest reforms – literacy programs, take over enterprises, social-democratic government ○ During Reagan, financed a group (Depointras) to overthrow the government ● Guatemala ○ CIA-Led overthrow of Arbenz Government (1954) ○ Divided between two cultures: Latino and indigenous (Mayan cultures) ○ Revolutions in the 1940s – previous government had treated the Indians as serfs/slaves, but Arbenz took over (socialist) ○ Reform – agrarian (land away from large landowners to local and indigenous people)
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