GLOBL 2 Lecture 4: Week 4 Lecture

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Global Studies

James Altman Ukraine, East Europe Crimea and Eastern Regions Background: ● Historically very ethno-linguistically diverse population ● Split between four major powers: The Russian Empire (Later Soviet Union), the Polish- Lithuanian Commonwealth ● By WW1 most of Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire Collapse of the Soviet Union/USSR ● The USSR collapsed on December 25th 1991 ● 15 States emerged from the USSR ● Russia (144 million people) and Ukraine (45 million) were the largest of these new countries Ukrainian-Russian Relations: The Good, the bad, and the Genocide(s) ● These territories and their diverse populations have complex historic ties Collectivization of Agriculture ● Ukraine was the historic “breadbasket” of the Russian Empire and Later USSR ● When the Soviet Union decided to collectivized agriculture it disproportionately affect Ukraine, southern Belarus and the North Caucasus.Southern Russia region ● The idea of collectivization was to destroy the traditional farming village structure and for everyone into collective farms ● This made it easier for the government to monitor and control production, but failed dramatically to increase outputs of food -> state store more food, but people were not producing more De-Kulakization - way Soviet saw the world ● Marxist-Leninist ideology said that there would be class conflict between the poor workers and the richer people who owned all the land, tools, goods, etc. that was needed to be productive (“means of production”) ● But the Russian empire was mostly full of poor farmers, so they had to invent “class enemies” ● Decided that the “kulaks” were not too poor -> would be the target ● Millions of kulaks were arrested and deported to Siberia and Central Asia or simply executed ● Around 3 million kulaks died during this time (across all the USSR) Holodomor - The Hunger Death (1932-1933) ● Stalin and the soviet leadership refused to believe that collectivization failed to increase yields. ● They claimed that there were more kulaks, Ukrainian nationalists and capitalist enemies sabotaging the project ● As a result, Ukraine specifically was sealed off so grain could only be taken out and expropriation of grain increased and foreign food aid was rejected ● Between 2.5 and 7.5 million Ukrainians starved to death Intermission from the Soviet Union: WW2 and the Nazi invasion ● Holocaust targeting Jews, Gypsies, Communists and others ● Enslavement of millions of captured soviet soldiers ● Complete destruction of many major cities ● Some Ukrainian nationalist movements appeared to fight soviet control (and some of these sided with the Nazis) ● Nationalist guerillas fought soviets in the forest for almost a decade after the end of WW2 Mass Deportation of Crimean Tatars (1945) ● Tatars are a Turkic people with a culture and language tied strongly to Turkey across the Black Sea ● After WW2, some Crimean Tatars were accused of helping the Nazis during their invasion so almost the entire population were deported ● As a result of the inhumane conditions of their deportation -> ⅓ died But it wasn’t all bad ● Shared triumph over Nazism ● Early cultural and linguistic protections ● Eradication of illiteracy ● Access to healthcare ● Temporary preferential treatment ● Next leader after Stalin was Ukrainian ● Shared accomplishments in space travel, medicine and other sciences ● Industrialization ● Shared soviet identity ● Almost complete bilingualism After the collapse of the USSR (1991) ● Things were relatively cooperative most of the time ● Ukraine needed Russian oil and gas ● Russia needed Ukrainian steel and food ● Many Ukrainians moved to work in Russia and families often had relatives in both countries ● Russia often cut heating supplies to Ukraine in the winter when Russia didn’t get what it wanted ● Russian actions elsewhere and its increasing authoritarian state (which aggressively controls most of the media) worried many Ukrainians Russian Journalism ● Since independence in 1992, 56 journalists have been confirmed murdered in Russia with confirmed motives by killers ● Another 109 have been murdered, without confirmed mot
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