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Lecture 3

MCDB 21 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Rna Virus, Amylopectin, Amylose


Department
Molecular, Cellular & Develop. Biology
Course Code
MCDB 21
Professor
SH Low
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3 (4/9/19)
Q: HIV is an RNA virus & is an envelope virus
Carbohydrates
- Readily usable source of energy for cells
- Also used for structural componentscellulose in plant cell walls (rigidity)
- Made up of monosaccharides
- Disaccharides → 2 sugars joined together
- Polysaccharides → more than 2 sugars joined together
- Starch:
- Plants store glucose in the form of starch
- Amylose → linear
- Amylopectin → branched
- Millions of glucose molecules joined together
- Unbranched or slightly branched
- Glycogen:
- Animals store glucose in the form of glycogen
- Millions of glucose molecules joined together
- Extremely branched
- Starch, glycogen, & cellulose are all glucose polymers
- Starch is digestible alpha 1,4 bonds
- Body creates enzymes that can digest those bonds
- Bread, potatoes, rice
- Makes up the bulk of our diet
- Cellulose is indigestible beta 1,4 bonds
- Body does not create enzymes to break these bonds
- When we eat fiber, we cannot digest it
- Glucose in cellulose is useless to use; we don’t get energy from it
- Cotton, paper
- polysaccharide
- Chitin makes up shells of crabs/lobsters
- Also a polysaccharide
- Example of how sugars can be for structure in addition to energy
- Glycoproteins = proteins with carbohydrates attached
- Glycolipids → lipids with carbohydrates attached
Lipids
- All are hydrophobic
- 3 types of lipids:
1) Triglycerides (fats) → most abundant lipid in diet
a) Long-term energy storage & insulation
2) Sterols → regulate growth & development
a) 4-fused ring structure (steroids)
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