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Lecture

Music Appreciation lecture notes.docx

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Department
Music
Course Code
MUS 15
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Katz

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Lecture 1 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Logistics  Must attend two concerts during the quarter o Thursday, October 8 , 8:00 Campbell Hall – famous concert pianist o Choose the other  2 papers (listening based)  exams o listen, recognize, come up with info about pieces  Music appreciation  U.S. and Great Britain b/w the world wars  1930’s  classical music and music appreciation on radio/records  access to classical music = spiritually/morally elevate you; element of social mobility o bringing elite experience to masses  approaches to music  style periods o the middle ages (400-1450) o the renaissance (1450-1600) o the baroque period (1600-1750) o the classical period (1750-1825) o the romantic period (1820-1900) o the twentieth century (1900-present)  genre o category of music  symphony  concerto  sonata  opera  listening examples o Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)  Rigoletto (1851)  Libretto: Francesco Maria Piave  Act III, “La donna é mobile”  Enrico Caruso  The Duke of Mantua (tenor)  Unidentified Orchestra  Victor, march 16, 1908  Analyzing  Bombastic orchestral intro  dramatic pause  Repetition of orchestral intro in Caruso’s voice  Repetition of orchestral intro  Caruso  same melody, different lyrics  Three ways of approaching music o As independent object, that can be described and analyzed  How long, how it’s put together, functions, contrasts, etc. o As a social product that reflects the culture that created and consumed it  It exists for a reason, particular places and times o As a carrier of narrative, or of emotional associations  What does it do to us, what kind of effect, is there a story/evoke a particular emotion?  Rhythm o The movement of music through time  Meter o The rhythmic organization of music through patterns of strong and weak beats o Duple meter  Strong-weak-strong-weak-strong-etc. o Triple meter  Strong-weak-weak-strong-weak-weak-etc.  Social functions o Why written? o Who paid to have it performed? o Who listened? o Connected to other social rituals? Lecture 2 – Baroque Vocal Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  The Baroque period (1600-1750)  Baroque (general sense of the word) – overly decorated, over done, too ornate o Early modern era  Vocal music – music that uses the voice o vs. instrumental music  Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) o General  Earliest piece we’re listening to  Allows us to discuss relationship b/w music and words  Illustrating emotions, working with/against each other, etc.  Relationship b/w music and social circumstances  Connecting history/reason why piece is produced o Who is she?  Not famous composer…  Daughter of poet (father), founded intellectual club which met in their home  Had debates, rhetorical exercises, read poetry, performed music occasionally  Unusual for women to take part; no female members, but because she was family she was “mistress of ceremonies” and could give debate topics, etc.  Ex: does love make you happy/unhappy? o Amor dormiglione [Sleepyhead, Cupid!]  General  Date: 1651 (published)  Willing to pay money to get the music so they could bring it into their own homes  Genre: aria  Style: monody  Performing forces: voice and lute  Rough translation  Wake up cupid, while you’re asleep my love is asleep; don’t be lazy and idle, you feel nothing while I sit here waiting  Commands followed by explanation behind commands  Musicality  Structure  Repetition of verses (vocal and instrumental)  A-B-A  Music enhances the emotions she’s trying to convey  As frustration intensifies, music gets louder/feels frustrated as well  Because poet has never felt love, the music never consummates that feeling  Because poet, the words are more important than the music… music enhances, but doesn’t overpower  Italian Opera in the Baroque o General  Play with music  First musical performances in human history… musical performance wasn’t a thing until the 1800’s, save for opera  First theaters:  Rome (1632)  Venice (1637)  Libretto – the poetry/words that people sing  why go?  Vocal display  super stars  men castrated as boys as to preserve their soprano voices as adults  visual display  instruments  Basso continuo  (low instrument + chording instrument)  low instrument o Cello o Bassoon  Chording instrument o Harpsichord  ancestor of piano (strings inside)  softer, more delicate sound than piano  PRESENCE OF HARPSICHORD = BAROQUE o Lute o Styles of opera within Baroque period  Recitative – plot action, dialogue, real time  Voice + continuo (like heightened speech)  More dialogue (sang) than music  Aria – emotional reflection, time suspended  More lyrical, melodic; full instrumental forces  More music than dialogue  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) o General  Dido and Aeneas Act III, “Dido’s Lament”  Libretto: Nahum Tate  Date: 1689  Genre: opera (English)  Excerpt: recitative and aria o Musicality  Lecture 3 – Baroque Instrumental Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  Ternary or three part form (A-B-A)  Movements  Ritornello  Solo  Purely instrumental  Played for the elite in small groups, not huge concert halls (lives in royal courts)  Listening: o No relationship between music and words because there are no words! o Talk about relationship b/w structure  Not about evoking emotion  About structure, form, etc.  The violin family  Violin  major string instrument of Baroque era  Viola  Cello  Double bass  Louis XIV as the Sun (1653)  Begins in Paris; beginning of Baroque era  Major entertainment for the kings was ballet  Louis XIV was a dancer, himself  These ballets didn’t tell stories o Russian ballet tell stories o French in 17 thcentury  social dances  People do these dances as couples/in groups for entertainment (Baroque/French square dance)  Music from ballets became well known o French royal court = most prestigious  Other people wanted to duplicate it (London, Italy, Germany, etc.)  Nobles, aristocrats wanted to emulate the French court o Music becomes detached from the dancing  People liked the music so much, they wanted to hear it when they weren’t dancing  Created similar, but not identical pieces (same feel, same speed, same rhythms/melodies, etc.)  Solo guitar, solo lute, etc. to be heard/played in domestic setting  24 violins of the king (24 Violons du Roy)  Baroque Dance Suite (some typical movements) o Overture o Allemande (German) o Courante (French) o Sarabande (Spanish)  slow o Jig or Gigue (English)  Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738; French)  Suite de symphonies o General  Excerpt: Rondeau  Date: 1729 (published)  Genre: dance suite  Form: A-B-A-C-A o Musicality  Pre-listen  French piece (same kind of Music played at Parisian court)  Typical of Baroque instrumental music  Steady pulse  Structural listening  Post-listen  Not trying to evoke a particular emotions  Generally festive piece  George Frideric Handel (1685-1759; German)  Water Music o General  Excerpt: alla hornpipe  Date: 1717 (first performance)  Genre: dance suite  Form: 3 part (A-B-A) o Musicality  Triple meter  The baroque concerto  Characteristics o Solo instrument/s and orchestra  Most likely violin in this era o Usually in three movements  Movements  Composer, complete work, movement 1, movement 2, movement 3 o Alternation between ritornello and solo  Ritornello  orchestra  Solo  individual instrument  Types o Solo concerto  Soloist featured o Concerto Grosso  Small group featured  Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741; Italy) o General  Priest, composer, musician o Concerto in E major, “Spring”  Allegro  Largo  Allegro o General  Excerpt: first movement  Date: 1725 (published)  Genre: concerto  Solo instrument: violin o Musicality  Does have a story  Interesting, but not typical  Only 5 of Vivaldi’s concertos have stories  Coincides with poems (one poem per movement per concerto) Lecture 4 – More Baroque Vocal Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  Chorus – a bunch of people singing together simultaneously o Or music written for a bunch of people singing simultaneously o Within opera  Da Capo Aria – three part form  Sacred music – music intended not for concert/private performance but as part of a church service  Lutheran chorale – German hymn; simple tune that a whole congregation can sing during a church service  Italian opera in the baroque  drama presented in music  libretto – poetry of the opera  recitative and aria o starbucks example o recitative – plot action, dialogue in real time  voice and continuo  heightened speech  resembles Monody o aria – emotional reflection, time suspended  more lyrical  melodic  full instrumental forces  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) o General  Dido and Aeneas Act III, Sailor’s Solo and Chorus  libretto: Nahum Tate  date: 1689  genre: opera (English) o musicality  orchestral prelude, solo verse, chorus  quick tempo  dance-like  George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) o German, learned to write Italian opera o Wrote Italian operas in England (for English audiences) o General  Messiah No. 18 “Rejoice Greatly” Soprano Aria  Libretto: Rev. Charles Jennens, from the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer  Date: 1742  Genre: oratorio  Form: Da Capo Aria o Social  South seas company (selling government debt)  Monopoly on trade in south seas  Crashed in 1720  People in London had less disposable income to attend/fund the opera  Handel had to use the musical skills he had in a different social setting  Oratorio  same musical styles as opera, but story taken from the bible (well known to Christian audience at the time) o Not performed as drama  No set, no costume, no acting of a play, etc.  Standing and singing to audience (plain) = cheaper o Story and chorus driven (not a play) o Musicality  Language: English  Performed by one large group for another large group  Most everything else we’ve heard has been by small amount of musicians for small, elite audience  Creates new body of people/audience to appreciate music  New relationship b/w audience and performing body  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)  General o Born in North Germany, but didn’t leave  Compared to Handel  Handel went to England and Italy which is where Italy was wanted  Bach  no opera business in North Germany o Professional church music composer o Wrote music based on his employment  Didn’t write for himself  Church organist (1 )t nd  Director of small music ensemble (2 – concertos)  Sacred vocal music (3 rd– choir, small orchestra) o The reformation th  16 century  collection of protestant movements  Martin Luther, John Calvin  key players  Worship in vernacular (as opposed to Latin)  Emphasis on congregational participation (group worship)  Singing  Native language  the Lutheran chorale o psalm text o translated into German o set to music o could be existing tune (folk song or popular song)  music o general  cantata No. 140 “Wachet aug, ruft uns die Stmme”  No. 4 (unison chorale)  Cantata  collection of short movements written for Lutheran service (music without the prayer)  Date: 1731  Genre: cantata (German Lutheran)  Basis: chorale melody o Musicality  Movements  Chorale  recitative/aria  chorale  Recitative/aria  chorale  Arias = duets  Ritornello 1, A, ritornello 2, A, ritornello 3, B, ritornello 4  Overlapping cantata and chorale  Styles of opera overlapped with chorale Lecture 5 – Form in the Classical Period 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  The enlightenment pg. 151  Meter pg. 13  Theme pg. 31 and pg. 155  Minuet and trio pg. 160  Major and minor pg. 23  Theme and variations pg. 159  Genre  Piano sonata pg. 186  String quarter pg. 163  Social developments  Classical era during Enlightenment o Beginning of period we now live in o Understanding the world through rational thought, science, art, etc. o Rise of public sphere  Public participation in politics, democracy, etc. o Rise of public concert  Industrial revolution o People becoming independent/educated  Music o Musicians were servants at beginning o By end of classical period, making money by playing music, selling sheet music, giving music lessons, etc.  Periods o Baroque= extravagant, lavish, etc. o Classical = button-up, proper, well-behaved, elegant, graceful  Classical musicology  Patterns o Meter – duple meter o The four movement cycle  Fast  Sonata – allegro form  Dramatic (big opening impression)  Slow  Lyrical  Minuet and Trio  Dance like  Minuet = court dance  Triple meter  Fast  Lively o The three movement cycle  Fast  Slow  Fast  Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  General o Sonata No. 24 in D Major  Allegro (fast)  Adagio (slow)  Finale: presto (fast)  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, no. 2 “Moonlight” o General  Genre: piano sonata  Movements: three  Movement 1: adagio sostenuto  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)  Eine Kleine Nachtmusik [A Little Night Music] o General  Date: 1787  Genre: serenade  Instrumentation: string ensemble  Movements: four  Movement III  Minuet – trio – minuet  AABB-CCDD-AB o Trio – structured like minuet, but sounds different  AABB  Contrast to the minuet in sound Lecture 6 – The Classical Symphony 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  First paper  Prompt posted online today  Outline  Haydn: From Servant to Symphonist o The rise of the public concert  Classical orchestra  Beethoven as transitional figure o Early, middle, and late periods  Beethoven’s symphony no. 5 o Extensions of classical forms  Terms  Chamber music (163) – music for a small ensemble  Theme and variations (159)  Major and minor (23)  Coda (158)  Sonata-allegro form (157) o Exposition o Development o Recapitulation  Motive (155)  Genre  String quartet (163) – example of chamber music  Symphony (170) – large symphony orchestra o Mix string, woodwind, percussion, brass  Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  Esterhaza (accent first a) o Servant for Austrian family ^ most of life o Two palaces (family palace, palace in Vienna) o Wrote music for the family he worked for  Operas  Puppet theater  Chamber music o String quartet (two violins, viola, cello) o Many aristocrats played string instruments  Convenient for Haydn to compose this music for the family he worked for (aristocrats) o String Quartet in C major, Op. 76 no. 3 “Emperor”  Movement II  General  Date: 1797  Genre: string quartet  Form: theme and variation  Musicality  Low, dominant bass line  Passing of melody from violins, cello, viola, back to violins  The Hanover Square Rooms 1790’s o Private rooms rented out to play music for normal people (not just aristocrats) o Tickets sold o Salomon  Wanted to bring Haydn to London o Orchestra  Strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion (timpani, organ, piano)  Chorus  Vocal soloists o Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  Symphony no. 100 in G major “Military”  Movement II  From Haydn’s “London” Symphonies  General  Date: 1794  Genre: symphony  Form A-B-A’ (coda)  Major vs. minor  Major – happy sounding harmonies/chords (bright, affirmative)  Minor – sad sounding harmonies/chords (dark, melancholy, etc.)  Musicality  Given  A  major, quiet  B  minor, loud  Coda  highlight military instruments o trumpets, drums  listening  light, fluffy, delicate, bouncy  heavy bass line in B  layers instruments to add depth and volume  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Background o Started as servant o Moved from capital of Germany to Vienna to study with Haydn late teens o Main source of income  aristocrats, young men (his age) that were impressed with him  Supported him most of his time in Vienna o Career stages  Early  Establishing himself in Vienna  First pieces same genres/forms/styles as Haydn and Mozart (piano sonatas, string quartets, symphonies)  Begins to go deaf  Middle (heard about most)  Progressively going more deaf  Late  Completely deaf/isolated  Less social  Less possible to have meaningful friendships/romance  Couldn’t communicate with people when he went completely deaf o Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67  Movement I  General  Date: 1807-8  Genre: symphony  Movements: 4  Form: sonata-allegro  Musicality  Different from Haydn  First phrase  not a theme, just notes = motive (very recognizable)  Beethoven vs. Haydn o B  works with motives; mostly minor o H  works with themes; mostly major  Short short short long  Movement II  Musicality   Movement III  Musicality  Lecture 7 – Classical Piano Concerto 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Four Movement cycle  Sonata-allegro form o Exposition  Themes, melodies, motives  Presenting the material  first theme  second theme  (repeat of exposition) o Development  Recapitulation  First theme  Second theme  Coda o Example: Mozart’s “A Little Night Music” o Example: Beethoven’s 5 thSymphony st nd  Dramatic pause between 1 and 2 theme (more deliberate than Mozart)  Huge juxtaposition (dramatic, deliberate vs. lyrical, delicate)  Slow o Lyrical o Example: Haydn’s “Symphony no. 100”  Quiet, delicate, lyrical th o Example: Beethoven’s 5 Symphony  Unison opening, legato, use of winds more prominent  Minuet and trio o Triple meter  Fast o Lively Lecture 8 – Classical Piano Concerto and Opera 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)  Vienna o City didn’t have developed concert while he was growing up o Set himself up as independent operator o Making a living  Writes/publishes music on commission  No copyright at this time  Plays in public (not very often, but more often than anyone else)  Had to advertise himself/make concerts as attractive as possible  Had to hire orchestra, rent hall, etc.  Demonstrate skills as player and composer  Wanted to play own music  Wanted to play something novel o Classical Concerto  Designed for solo instrument and orchestra  Three movements  Fast (dramatic)  Slow (lyrical)  Fast (lively run to finish)  Piano Concerto in G major, K. 453 (Movement I) o General  Genre: concerto  Movements: three  Features  Cadenza  improvised solo passage near end of movement  Some written my Mozart for his pupils to practice/learn from/learn how to write own o Musicality  Light, fluffy, bouncy  Duple meter  Elaborate piano solo overlapping lyrical orchestra  Opera  Voice types o Women:  Soprano  [mezzo-soprano]  alto o men  tenor  [baritone]  bass  types of opera o opera seria [serious opera]  mostly alternation of recitative and aria  designed to flatter and entertain aristocracy  libretti from history and mythology  in Italian (throughout Europe)  vocal display o opera buffa [comic opera]  beginning of 18 thcentury (began)  Italian form of comic opera  Also popular outside of Italy  Other countries have own comic opera types (in vernacular)  Ensembles, recitatives, and arias  Numbers for multiple characters (duets, trios)  Often satirizes (but still entertains) aristocracy  Libretti from current life  No long ancient history/ancient Gods  Don Giovanni (Mozart) o Characters  Don Giovanni  Leporello (his servant)  Donna Elvira (a noblewoman)  Deserted by don Giovanni o Act I, Scene II  General  Libretto: Lorenzo da Ponte  Date: 1787  Genre: opera buffa (comic opera)  Acts: two  Numbers: aria, recitative, and aria  Aria  I want to find him  When I find him he’s in trouble  Repeat (with intervention by both men)  Recitative  Dialogue  No musicality  Gentle harpsichord underneath  Awkward encounter  Aria  Showing the book of conquests  Every size, shape, etc.  crazy numbers per country Lecture 9 – The Romantic Art Song Franz Schubert 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Concluding Beethoven (1770-1827)  Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, no. 2 “Moonlight” (Movement I) o General  Genre: piano sonata  Movements: 3  Movement I: adagio sostenuto o Musicality  Very famous piece  Dreamy, lyrical, timid, ghostly, sorrowful  Perfectly normal for 2 ndmovement, but VERY strange st for 1 movement  as if he started movement in middle of whole piece  Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 (Movement III) o Musicality  Scherzo  Triple meter  Strong horn fanfare  Strange Harry Potter-like dance  Trio  beautiful melismatic cello line o Different from the Mozart  In triple meter  Not entirely even in tempo  Mozart = tidy (pulse and dynamic)  Beethoven = all over the place (dynamic and pulse)  Connection throughout movements  Continuation of short short short loooong (just in a different way) o Scherzo vs. minuet  Scherzo = much faster (than minuet)  Movement IV (Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67) o From III  IV no break/pause  III diminishes greatly  leads to build up of IV with new instruments w/o break  The Romantic Period (1820-1900) o Social  The enlightenment  Rational inquiry = challenged/enhanced beyond rational (irrational, supernatural, emotional)  Sentiment, feeling, emotion o Fairytales, poetry, attracted to idea of identity (in regards to nationality)  Know nationality by knowing folk tales, folk culture, etc.  Folk culture disappearing (people started moving to city)  Led to preserving, remembering folk culture/stories Lecture 10 – Romantic Piano Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Midterm  Big pink scantron  Review session o Wednesday 3:45 @ Mus 1145  Romantic Piano Music  Terms o Short lyric piano piece (220)  Mazurka (222)  Character piece (226) o Salon (221) o Rubato (222) o Parlor song (228)  Piano in the romantic era o Parlor  Domestic  Art songs  Short, lyric pieces  Transcriptions  Four hands  Meant for larger, famous works they wanted for home use o Concert hall  Public  Concertos  Virtuoso works  Short lyrics piano piece o Stylized dance music  Waltz  Mazurka  distinctive Polish peasant dance o Descriptive works  Connected to a scene  Descriptive words o Based on vocal music  “songs without words”  Frederic Francois Chopin (1810-1849) o General  Grew up in Warsaw, Poland  Left in late teens  Originally thought he was going to be a pianist playing for grand audiences, getting paid  Decided he didn’t like being intimidated by the crowd; stage fright  Didn’t like the publicity machine  competition, publicity, posters, etc.  Goes to Paris  Gives lessons to daughters of Parisian society (big bucks)  Performer, invited to play in salons mostly  Politics  “great Poland” in the 17 thcentury (before Chopin’s birth)  became partitioned  Russia, etc.  Poland becomes “Congress of Poland” 1815 o Chopin left Poland for Paris during unsuccessful revolution o Affects his music  Chopin marketed his Polish-ness  Ex: Mazurka o Mazurka in B-flat minor, Op, 24, no. 4  General  Date: 1833  Genre: mazurka (short lyric piano piece)  Rubato  Not a steady tempo th  Pulse = elastic  new in 19 century (particularly put with Chopin’s pieces)  Musicality  “exotic, eastern European music”  very dissonant  shifts from major to minor  Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847) o General  Wealthy Jewish family from Berlin  Well trained musician  Piano prodigy  Thorough compositional/theory training  Felix Mendelsohn (younger brother)  Also extraordinarily talented composer/musician  Fanny trained very well, but explicitly forbidden from being professional performer  Discouraged from publishing music o “September: At the River” from The Year  general  date: 1841  genre: character piece  from: cycle of short pieces  background  went to Italy for a year (with husband)  wrote short piano piece for each month she was there (evoking her experiences)  poetry o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Flow, flow dear river/ Never will I be happy.”  musicality  water-like  sadness  lower chords underneath treble chromatic runs  minor vs. major (constantly in juxtaposition)  Stephen Foster (1826-1865) o “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair”  general  text: Stephen foster  date: 1854  genre: parlor song  musicality  text:  nostalgic, wistful, nature imagery  piano accompaniment under soprano voice  very American sounding  repetition of same melody multiple times Lecture 11 – Romantic Orchestra Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  terms  program music (pg. 230-231) o music that tells a story/is connected to an idea or picture  absolute music (pg. 230 and pg. 244) o music that’s about a genre, a key, etc. (ex: Beethoven’s symphony no. 5) o music about being sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, etc.  genres  convert overture (pg. 231)  incidental music (pg. 231)  program symphony  symphonic poem (tone poem)  symphony  romantic orchestra  general o de
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