Class Notes (839,147)
United States (325,796)
Music (172)
MUS 15 (32)
Katz (1)

Music Appreciation lecture notes.docx

60 Pages

Course Code
MUS 15

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 60 pages of the document.
Lecture 1 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Logistics  Must attend two concerts during the quarter o Thursday, October 8 , 8:00 Campbell Hall – famous concert pianist o Choose the other  2 papers (listening based)  exams o listen, recognize, come up with info about pieces  Music appreciation  U.S. and Great Britain b/w the world wars  1930’s  classical music and music appreciation on radio/records  access to classical music = spiritually/morally elevate you; element of social mobility o bringing elite experience to masses  approaches to music  style periods o the middle ages (400-1450) o the renaissance (1450-1600) o the baroque period (1600-1750) o the classical period (1750-1825) o the romantic period (1820-1900) o the twentieth century (1900-present)  genre o category of music  symphony  concerto  sonata  opera  listening examples o Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)  Rigoletto (1851)  Libretto: Francesco Maria Piave  Act III, “La donna é mobile”  Enrico Caruso  The Duke of Mantua (tenor)  Unidentified Orchestra  Victor, march 16, 1908  Analyzing  Bombastic orchestral intro  dramatic pause  Repetition of orchestral intro in Caruso’s voice  Repetition of orchestral intro  Caruso  same melody, different lyrics  Three ways of approaching music o As independent object, that can be described and analyzed  How long, how it’s put together, functions, contrasts, etc. o As a social product that reflects the culture that created and consumed it  It exists for a reason, particular places and times o As a carrier of narrative, or of emotional associations  What does it do to us, what kind of effect, is there a story/evoke a particular emotion?  Rhythm o The movement of music through time  Meter o The rhythmic organization of music through patterns of strong and weak beats o Duple meter  Strong-weak-strong-weak-strong-etc. o Triple meter  Strong-weak-weak-strong-weak-weak-etc.  Social functions o Why written? o Who paid to have it performed? o Who listened? o Connected to other social rituals? Lecture 2 – Baroque Vocal Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  The Baroque period (1600-1750)  Baroque (general sense of the word) – overly decorated, over done, too ornate o Early modern era  Vocal music – music that uses the voice o vs. instrumental music  Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) o General  Earliest piece we’re listening to  Allows us to discuss relationship b/w music and words  Illustrating emotions, working with/against each other, etc.  Relationship b/w music and social circumstances  Connecting history/reason why piece is produced o Who is she?  Not famous composer…  Daughter of poet (father), founded intellectual club which met in their home  Had debates, rhetorical exercises, read poetry, performed music occasionally  Unusual for women to take part; no female members, but because she was family she was “mistress of ceremonies” and could give debate topics, etc.  Ex: does love make you happy/unhappy? o Amor dormiglione [Sleepyhead, Cupid!]  General  Date: 1651 (published)  Willing to pay money to get the music so they could bring it into their own homes  Genre: aria  Style: monody  Performing forces: voice and lute  Rough translation  Wake up cupid, while you’re asleep my love is asleep; don’t be lazy and idle, you feel nothing while I sit here waiting  Commands followed by explanation behind commands  Musicality  Structure  Repetition of verses (vocal and instrumental)  A-B-A  Music enhances the emotions she’s trying to convey  As frustration intensifies, music gets louder/feels frustrated as well  Because poet has never felt love, the music never consummates that feeling  Because poet, the words are more important than the music… music enhances, but doesn’t overpower  Italian Opera in the Baroque o General  Play with music  First musical performances in human history… musical performance wasn’t a thing until the 1800’s, save for opera  First theaters:  Rome (1632)  Venice (1637)  Libretto – the poetry/words that people sing  why go?  Vocal display  super stars  men castrated as boys as to preserve their soprano voices as adults  visual display  instruments  Basso continuo  (low instrument + chording instrument)  low instrument o Cello o Bassoon  Chording instrument o Harpsichord  ancestor of piano (strings inside)  softer, more delicate sound than piano  PRESENCE OF HARPSICHORD = BAROQUE o Lute o Styles of opera within Baroque period  Recitative – plot action, dialogue, real time  Voice + continuo (like heightened speech)  More dialogue (sang) than music  Aria – emotional reflection, time suspended  More lyrical, melodic; full instrumental forces  More music than dialogue  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) o General  Dido and Aeneas Act III, “Dido’s Lament”  Libretto: Nahum Tate  Date: 1689  Genre: opera (English)  Excerpt: recitative and aria o Musicality  Lecture 3 – Baroque Instrumental Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  Ternary or three part form (A-B-A)  Movements  Ritornello  Solo  Purely instrumental  Played for the elite in small groups, not huge concert halls (lives in royal courts)  Listening: o No relationship between music and words because there are no words! o Talk about relationship b/w structure  Not about evoking emotion  About structure, form, etc.  The violin family  Violin  major string instrument of Baroque era  Viola  Cello  Double bass  Louis XIV as the Sun (1653)  Begins in Paris; beginning of Baroque era  Major entertainment for the kings was ballet  Louis XIV was a dancer, himself  These ballets didn’t tell stories o Russian ballet tell stories o French in 17 thcentury  social dances  People do these dances as couples/in groups for entertainment (Baroque/French square dance)  Music from ballets became well known o French royal court = most prestigious  Other people wanted to duplicate it (London, Italy, Germany, etc.)  Nobles, aristocrats wanted to emulate the French court o Music becomes detached from the dancing  People liked the music so much, they wanted to hear it when they weren’t dancing  Created similar, but not identical pieces (same feel, same speed, same rhythms/melodies, etc.)  Solo guitar, solo lute, etc. to be heard/played in domestic setting  24 violins of the king (24 Violons du Roy)  Baroque Dance Suite (some typical movements) o Overture o Allemande (German) o Courante (French) o Sarabande (Spanish)  slow o Jig or Gigue (English)  Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738; French)  Suite de symphonies o General  Excerpt: Rondeau  Date: 1729 (published)  Genre: dance suite  Form: A-B-A-C-A o Musicality  Pre-listen  French piece (same kind of Music played at Parisian court)  Typical of Baroque instrumental music  Steady pulse  Structural listening  Post-listen  Not trying to evoke a particular emotions  Generally festive piece  George Frideric Handel (1685-1759; German)  Water Music o General  Excerpt: alla hornpipe  Date: 1717 (first performance)  Genre: dance suite  Form: 3 part (A-B-A) o Musicality  Triple meter  The baroque concerto  Characteristics o Solo instrument/s and orchestra  Most likely violin in this era o Usually in three movements  Movements  Composer, complete work, movement 1, movement 2, movement 3 o Alternation between ritornello and solo  Ritornello  orchestra  Solo  individual instrument  Types o Solo concerto  Soloist featured o Concerto Grosso  Small group featured  Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741; Italy) o General  Priest, composer, musician o Concerto in E major, “Spring”  Allegro  Largo  Allegro o General  Excerpt: first movement  Date: 1725 (published)  Genre: concerto  Solo instrument: violin o Musicality  Does have a story  Interesting, but not typical  Only 5 of Vivaldi’s concertos have stories  Coincides with poems (one poem per movement per concerto) Lecture 4 – More Baroque Vocal Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  Chorus – a bunch of people singing together simultaneously o Or music written for a bunch of people singing simultaneously o Within opera  Da Capo Aria – three part form  Sacred music – music intended not for concert/private performance but as part of a church service  Lutheran chorale – German hymn; simple tune that a whole congregation can sing during a church service  Italian opera in the baroque  drama presented in music  libretto – poetry of the opera  recitative and aria o starbucks example o recitative – plot action, dialogue in real time  voice and continuo  heightened speech  resembles Monody o aria – emotional reflection, time suspended  more lyrical  melodic  full instrumental forces  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) o General  Dido and Aeneas Act III, Sailor’s Solo and Chorus  libretto: Nahum Tate  date: 1689  genre: opera (English) o musicality  orchestral prelude, solo verse, chorus  quick tempo  dance-like  George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) o German, learned to write Italian opera o Wrote Italian operas in England (for English audiences) o General  Messiah No. 18 “Rejoice Greatly” Soprano Aria  Libretto: Rev. Charles Jennens, from the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer  Date: 1742  Genre: oratorio  Form: Da Capo Aria o Social  South seas company (selling government debt)  Monopoly on trade in south seas  Crashed in 1720  People in London had less disposable income to attend/fund the opera  Handel had to use the musical skills he had in a different social setting  Oratorio  same musical styles as opera, but story taken from the bible (well known to Christian audience at the time) o Not performed as drama  No set, no costume, no acting of a play, etc.  Standing and singing to audience (plain) = cheaper o Story and chorus driven (not a play) o Musicality  Language: English  Performed by one large group for another large group  Most everything else we’ve heard has been by small amount of musicians for small, elite audience  Creates new body of people/audience to appreciate music  New relationship b/w audience and performing body  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)  General o Born in North Germany, but didn’t leave  Compared to Handel  Handel went to England and Italy which is where Italy was wanted  Bach  no opera business in North Germany o Professional church music composer o Wrote music based on his employment  Didn’t write for himself  Church organist (1 )t nd  Director of small music ensemble (2 – concertos)  Sacred vocal music (3 rd– choir, small orchestra) o The reformation th  16 century  collection of protestant movements  Martin Luther, John Calvin  key players  Worship in vernacular (as opposed to Latin)  Emphasis on congregational participation (group worship)  Singing  Native language  the Lutheran chorale o psalm text o translated into German o set to music o could be existing tune (folk song or popular song)  music o general  cantata No. 140 “Wachet aug, ruft uns die Stmme”  No. 4 (unison chorale)  Cantata  collection of short movements written for Lutheran service (music without the prayer)  Date: 1731  Genre: cantata (German Lutheran)  Basis: chorale melody o Musicality  Movements  Chorale  recitative/aria  chorale  Recitative/aria  chorale  Arias = duets  Ritornello 1, A, ritornello 2, A, ritornello 3, B, ritornello 4  Overlapping cantata and chorale  Styles of opera overlapped with chorale Lecture 5 – Form in the Classical Period 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Terms  The enlightenment pg. 151  Meter pg. 13  Theme pg. 31 and pg. 155  Minuet and trio pg. 160  Major and minor pg. 23  Theme and variations pg. 159  Genre  Piano sonata pg. 186  String quarter pg. 163  Social developments  Classical era during Enlightenment o Beginning of period we now live in o Understanding the world through rational thought, science, art, etc. o Rise of public sphere  Public participation in politics, democracy, etc. o Rise of public concert  Industrial revolution o People becoming independent/educated  Music o Musicians were servants at beginning o By end of classical period, making money by playing music, selling sheet music, giving music lessons, etc.  Periods o Baroque= extravagant, lavish, etc. o Classical = button-up, proper, well-behaved, elegant, graceful  Classical musicology  Patterns o Meter – duple meter o The four movement cycle  Fast  Sonata – allegro form  Dramatic (big opening impression)  Slow  Lyrical  Minuet and Trio  Dance like  Minuet = court dance  Triple meter  Fast  Lively o The three movement cycle  Fast  Slow  Fast  Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  General o Sonata No. 24 in D Major  Allegro (fast)  Adagio (slow)  Finale: presto (fast)  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, no. 2 “Moonlight” o General  Genre: piano sonata  Movements: three  Movement 1: adagio sostenuto  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)  Eine Kleine Nachtmusik [A Little Night Music] o General  Date: 1787  Genre: serenade  Instrumentation: string ensemble  Movements: four  Movement III  Minuet – trio – minuet  AABB-CCDD-AB o Trio – structured like minuet, but sounds different  AABB  Contrast to the minuet in sound Lecture 6 – The Classical Symphony 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  First paper  Prompt posted online today  Outline  Haydn: From Servant to Symphonist o The rise of the public concert  Classical orchestra  Beethoven as transitional figure o Early, middle, and late periods  Beethoven’s symphony no. 5 o Extensions of classical forms  Terms  Chamber music (163) – music for a small ensemble  Theme and variations (159)  Major and minor (23)  Coda (158)  Sonata-allegro form (157) o Exposition o Development o Recapitulation  Motive (155)  Genre  String quartet (163) – example of chamber music  Symphony (170) – large symphony orchestra o Mix string, woodwind, percussion, brass  Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  Esterhaza (accent first a) o Servant for Austrian family ^ most of life o Two palaces (family palace, palace in Vienna) o Wrote music for the family he worked for  Operas  Puppet theater  Chamber music o String quartet (two violins, viola, cello) o Many aristocrats played string instruments  Convenient for Haydn to compose this music for the family he worked for (aristocrats) o String Quartet in C major, Op. 76 no. 3 “Emperor”  Movement II  General  Date: 1797  Genre: string quartet  Form: theme and variation  Musicality  Low, dominant bass line  Passing of melody from violins, cello, viola, back to violins  The Hanover Square Rooms 1790’s o Private rooms rented out to play music for normal people (not just aristocrats) o Tickets sold o Salomon  Wanted to bring Haydn to London o Orchestra  Strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion (timpani, organ, piano)  Chorus  Vocal soloists o Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)  Symphony no. 100 in G major “Military”  Movement II  From Haydn’s “London” Symphonies  General  Date: 1794  Genre: symphony  Form A-B-A’ (coda)  Major vs. minor  Major – happy sounding harmonies/chords (bright, affirmative)  Minor – sad sounding harmonies/chords (dark, melancholy, etc.)  Musicality  Given  A  major, quiet  B  minor, loud  Coda  highlight military instruments o trumpets, drums  listening  light, fluffy, delicate, bouncy  heavy bass line in B  layers instruments to add depth and volume  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Background o Started as servant o Moved from capital of Germany to Vienna to study with Haydn late teens o Main source of income  aristocrats, young men (his age) that were impressed with him  Supported him most of his time in Vienna o Career stages  Early  Establishing himself in Vienna  First pieces same genres/forms/styles as Haydn and Mozart (piano sonatas, string quartets, symphonies)  Begins to go deaf  Middle (heard about most)  Progressively going more deaf  Late  Completely deaf/isolated  Less social  Less possible to have meaningful friendships/romance  Couldn’t communicate with people when he went completely deaf o Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67  Movement I  General  Date: 1807-8  Genre: symphony  Movements: 4  Form: sonata-allegro  Musicality  Different from Haydn  First phrase  not a theme, just notes = motive (very recognizable)  Beethoven vs. Haydn o B  works with motives; mostly minor o H  works with themes; mostly major  Short short short long  Movement II  Musicality   Movement III  Musicality  Lecture 7 – Classical Piano Concerto 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Four Movement cycle  Sonata-allegro form o Exposition  Themes, melodies, motives  Presenting the material  first theme  second theme  (repeat of exposition) o Development  Recapitulation  First theme  Second theme  Coda o Example: Mozart’s “A Little Night Music” o Example: Beethoven’s 5 thSymphony st nd  Dramatic pause between 1 and 2 theme (more deliberate than Mozart)  Huge juxtaposition (dramatic, deliberate vs. lyrical, delicate)  Slow o Lyrical o Example: Haydn’s “Symphony no. 100”  Quiet, delicate, lyrical th o Example: Beethoven’s 5 Symphony  Unison opening, legato, use of winds more prominent  Minuet and trio o Triple meter  Fast o Lively Lecture 8 – Classical Piano Concerto and Opera 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)  Vienna o City didn’t have developed concert while he was growing up o Set himself up as independent operator o Making a living  Writes/publishes music on commission  No copyright at this time  Plays in public (not very often, but more often than anyone else)  Had to advertise himself/make concerts as attractive as possible  Had to hire orchestra, rent hall, etc.  Demonstrate skills as player and composer  Wanted to play own music  Wanted to play something novel o Classical Concerto  Designed for solo instrument and orchestra  Three movements  Fast (dramatic)  Slow (lyrical)  Fast (lively run to finish)  Piano Concerto in G major, K. 453 (Movement I) o General  Genre: concerto  Movements: three  Features  Cadenza  improvised solo passage near end of movement  Some written my Mozart for his pupils to practice/learn from/learn how to write own o Musicality  Light, fluffy, bouncy  Duple meter  Elaborate piano solo overlapping lyrical orchestra  Opera  Voice types o Women:  Soprano  [mezzo-soprano]  alto o men  tenor  [baritone]  bass  types of opera o opera seria [serious opera]  mostly alternation of recitative and aria  designed to flatter and entertain aristocracy  libretti from history and mythology  in Italian (throughout Europe)  vocal display o opera buffa [comic opera]  beginning of 18 thcentury (began)  Italian form of comic opera  Also popular outside of Italy  Other countries have own comic opera types (in vernacular)  Ensembles, recitatives, and arias  Numbers for multiple characters (duets, trios)  Often satirizes (but still entertains) aristocracy  Libretti from current life  No long ancient history/ancient Gods  Don Giovanni (Mozart) o Characters  Don Giovanni  Leporello (his servant)  Donna Elvira (a noblewoman)  Deserted by don Giovanni o Act I, Scene II  General  Libretto: Lorenzo da Ponte  Date: 1787  Genre: opera buffa (comic opera)  Acts: two  Numbers: aria, recitative, and aria  Aria  I want to find him  When I find him he’s in trouble  Repeat (with intervention by both men)  Recitative  Dialogue  No musicality  Gentle harpsichord underneath  Awkward encounter  Aria  Showing the book of conquests  Every size, shape, etc.  crazy numbers per country Lecture 9 – The Romantic Art Song Franz Schubert 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Concluding Beethoven (1770-1827)  Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, no. 2 “Moonlight” (Movement I) o General  Genre: piano sonata  Movements: 3  Movement I: adagio sostenuto o Musicality  Very famous piece  Dreamy, lyrical, timid, ghostly, sorrowful  Perfectly normal for 2 ndmovement, but VERY strange st for 1 movement  as if he started movement in middle of whole piece  Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 (Movement III) o Musicality  Scherzo  Triple meter  Strong horn fanfare  Strange Harry Potter-like dance  Trio  beautiful melismatic cello line o Different from the Mozart  In triple meter  Not entirely even in tempo  Mozart = tidy (pulse and dynamic)  Beethoven = all over the place (dynamic and pulse)  Connection throughout movements  Continuation of short short short loooong (just in a different way) o Scherzo vs. minuet  Scherzo = much faster (than minuet)  Movement IV (Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67) o From III  IV no break/pause  III diminishes greatly  leads to build up of IV with new instruments w/o break  The Romantic Period (1820-1900) o Social  The enlightenment  Rational inquiry = challenged/enhanced beyond rational (irrational, supernatural, emotional)  Sentiment, feeling, emotion o Fairytales, poetry, attracted to idea of identity (in regards to nationality)  Know nationality by knowing folk tales, folk culture, etc.  Folk culture disappearing (people started moving to city)  Led to preserving, remembering folk culture/stories Lecture 10 – Romantic Piano Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  Midterm  Big pink scantron  Review session o Wednesday 3:45 @ Mus 1145  Romantic Piano Music  Terms o Short lyric piano piece (220)  Mazurka (222)  Character piece (226) o Salon (221) o Rubato (222) o Parlor song (228)  Piano in the romantic era o Parlor  Domestic  Art songs  Short, lyric pieces  Transcriptions  Four hands  Meant for larger, famous works they wanted for home use o Concert hall  Public  Concertos  Virtuoso works  Short lyrics piano piece o Stylized dance music  Waltz  Mazurka  distinctive Polish peasant dance o Descriptive works  Connected to a scene  Descriptive words o Based on vocal music  “songs without words”  Frederic Francois Chopin (1810-1849) o General  Grew up in Warsaw, Poland  Left in late teens  Originally thought he was going to be a pianist playing for grand audiences, getting paid  Decided he didn’t like being intimidated by the crowd; stage fright  Didn’t like the publicity machine  competition, publicity, posters, etc.  Goes to Paris  Gives lessons to daughters of Parisian society (big bucks)  Performer, invited to play in salons mostly  Politics  “great Poland” in the 17 thcentury (before Chopin’s birth)  became partitioned  Russia, etc.  Poland becomes “Congress of Poland” 1815 o Chopin left Poland for Paris during unsuccessful revolution o Affects his music  Chopin marketed his Polish-ness  Ex: Mazurka o Mazurka in B-flat minor, Op, 24, no. 4  General  Date: 1833  Genre: mazurka (short lyric piano piece)  Rubato  Not a steady tempo th  Pulse = elastic  new in 19 century (particularly put with Chopin’s pieces)  Musicality  “exotic, eastern European music”  very dissonant  shifts from major to minor  Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847) o General  Wealthy Jewish family from Berlin  Well trained musician  Piano prodigy  Thorough compositional/theory training  Felix Mendelsohn (younger brother)  Also extraordinarily talented composer/musician  Fanny trained very well, but explicitly forbidden from being professional performer  Discouraged from publishing music o “September: At the River” from The Year  general  date: 1841  genre: character piece  from: cycle of short pieces  background  went to Italy for a year (with husband)  wrote short piano piece for each month she was there (evoking her experiences)  poetry o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Flow, flow dear river/ Never will I be happy.”  musicality  water-like  sadness  lower chords underneath treble chromatic runs  minor vs. major (constantly in juxtaposition)  Stephen Foster (1826-1865) o “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair”  general  text: Stephen foster  date: 1854  genre: parlor song  musicality  text:  nostalgic, wistful, nature imagery  piano accompaniment under soprano voice  very American sounding  repetition of same melody multiple times Lecture 11 – Romantic Orchestra Music 9/27/2012 10:57:00 AM  terms  program music (pg. 230-231) o music that tells a story/is connected to an idea or picture  absolute music (pg. 230 and pg. 244) o music that’s about a genre, a key, etc. (ex: Beethoven’s symphony no. 5) o music about being sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, etc.  genres  convert overture (pg. 231)  incidental music (pg. 231)  program symphony  symphonic poem (tone poem)  symphony  romantic orchestra  general o de
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.