POL S 6 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Primogeniture, Hereditary Monarchy, Reform Act 1832

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30 May 2018
School
Course
Professor
Objectives for today
Developed Democracies
Four Cases Studied Today
United Kingdom
§
United States
§
Japan
§
Germany
§
What is a developed democracy?
Key elements:
Institutionalized democracy
Firmly embedded political and societal institutions
Stable
E.g. participation, competition, and liberty
§
High level of economic development and prosperity
§
Formerly referred to as "First World" countries
AKA: Advanced industrialized democracies
Problem with this term too because of "industrialized"
We're post-industrialized, focusing more on services
and less on manufacturing
Wealthier democracies
The other "worlds" were second (commies) and third
(developing nations)
§
Shared characteristics
Economics:
Capitalist economic systems, but can be:
Liberal, social democratic, or mercantilist (varied state
roles)
Service sector dominates
This is why we can't really call them "industrialized"
High Human Development index (HDI) ratings
Levels of education, life expectancy, etc.
§
Politics:
Liberal democratic regimes
All believe in some balance of freedom and equality
§
Political Diversity
All developed democracies are institutionalized
§
Differ in the specifics of freedom and liberties… there are different
rights and regulations
§
Variations in participation
Voter eligibility
Registration rules
Compulsory versus voluntary voting
Compulsory = required voting (Australia)
®
Referenda and initiative use
Referenda: legislature sends something out for the
public to vote on
®
Initiatives: public suggests or requests legislation and
votes on certain issues
®
§
Competition varies in…
Electoral systems
Campaign funding and rules
Some countries place limits
®
Executive power and type
Separation of powers or not
®
§
Economic Diversity
All developed democracies follow capitalism
Belief in private property and free markets
High quality of life
Contribute to significant economic prosperity
§
Varies in regards to…
Levels of inequality across country
Socially democratic countries prioritize equality
®
Role of the state in the economy
Political economic systems
The United States is Liberal
®
Japan is Mercantilist
®
Scandinavia is Socially Democratic
®
§
GENERAL OUTLINE FOR ALL CASES COVERED DURING THE REMAINDER
OF THE COURSE:This is how country cases will be studied for the rest of the course
IntroductionI.
Historical Development of the StateII.
Political RegimeIII.
Political Conflict and CompetitionIV.
Society
Ethnic divisionsa.
Religious divisionsb.
Culturec.
V.
Political EconomyVI.
Concludes: Current Issues in ________ CountryVII.
UNITED KINGDOM
Introduction
Comprised of FOUR nations: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
(not the same as "Ireland" - the Republic of Ireland)
Official name: United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK)
Great Britain = England, Wales, Scotland
§
Republic of Ireland (usually referred to as Ireland) is NOT in the
United Kingdom
§
Why study?
It is the world's oldest/first democracy
§
There is no written constitution in the UK; also no constitutional
court
§
It is the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Also a former imperialist and colonial power
§
Remains influential in modern global politics
§
Historical Development of the State
The Waves of Invasion
A number of invasions that were very impactful
§
Celts: Celtic Fringe (Britain's northern and western perimeter)
§
Germanic Angles and Saxons: provided and began to unify language
§
Norman invasion in 1066: imported feudalism and common law
Common law was a system based on local customs and
precedent rather than formal legal codes
Feudalism: mutual obligation btwn lord and peasant, and
lord/monarch/vassal
§
Emergence of the Modern British State
Early major developments in transition from monarchic to
parliamentary dominance
The Magna Carta (1125)
A promise to uphold feudal rights, which started the
trend of limiting the power of the monarchy
®
Subjecting British monarchs to the rule of law
®
Shifting power away from religious figures
Limiting control of the Catholic Church in the UK
®
Henry VII wanted to get rid of Catholic Church because
they would not allow him to divorce his wife
Used Parliament to pass laws that took England
out of the Catholic Church
England replaced Catholicism with the Protestant
Church
State-controlled Anglican Church was
weaker and less autonomous
}
®
The English Civil War (1642-1651)
Started because Charles I resisted Parliamentary limits
on his power
®
Number of battles shaping the state
®
Between supporters of Parliament and defenders of
Charles I
®
Charles I executed by Parliament in 1649
®
Cromwell's Dictatorship (1649-1660)
After English Civil War, England was a republic under
Oliver Cromwell
®
Republic became a military dictatorship because of
Cromwell's rule
®
Parliament restored monarchy in 1660
®
The 1688 Glorious Revolution
The 1689 Bill of Rights
Issued by Parliament and established a
constitutional monarchy in Britain
Sets out the basis of civil rights in England
®
Creation of the rule of law
No one is above the law
®
Trials by jury evolving
®
Provided for freedom of speech
®
True kernels of democracy coming about
®
1714 Crowning of George I
German royal who barely spoke English
Had to rely on his cabinet and prime minister to
rule
1721-1742: Prime Minister Sir Robert
Walpole (Britain's 1st prime minister)
}
Slowly over time made the parliament more
powerful
®
Shaping the office of the prime minister
®
§
The British Empire
Overseas expansion and conquest from the 16th -- 19th century
Major colonial losses from the 18th to mid-20th century
Empire shrinking
§
Colonies fighting for independence from Britain
§
1982: Brief war over Falkland Islands
UK trying to retain control of a few small colonies
§
Fought with Argentina to keep control of Falkland Islands
§
Britain won
§
1997: Hong Kong returned to China (no longer under British rule)
Commonwealth
Even though colonies are no longer ruled by British
§
Includes the UK and 54 former British colonies to maintain at least
some economic and cultural ties
§
The Industrial Revolutions
UK = first industrial nation
Allowed for colonial expansion
§
Industrial wealth made colonization and imperialism a possibility
§
Societal changes
Urbanization; moving production from rural to urban areas
§
A new middle class
§
The problems of early industrialization
Lavish spending in British empire led to two World Wars for Allied
Forces
Wars = very costly leading to economic decline for UK
§
"first-mover" industrialization
§
Hard to reform economy
§
Gradual Democratization:
Rise of Parties
Parliament initially represented the interests of the wealthy
House of Lords represented aristocracy
House of Commons represented the lower nobility and
merchant class
§
In the 18th Century, two large cliques turned into the Tories
(Conservatives) and Whigs (Liberals)
Tories
Conservatives
®
Supported policies of the monarch
®
Whigs
Liberals
®
Opposed policies of the monarchs
®
First to cultivate support among Britain's commercial
class
®
§
Expansion of Suffrage
1832 Reform Act: doubled the size of the electorate, but more than
90% of adults were excluded
§
1928: Women over 21 were granted the right to vote
§
1969: the voting age was reduced to 18
§
Expanding the vote forced political parties to respond to demands
for more government services
§
Establishment of a Welfare state: The Labour Party came to power
in 1945
More interested in equality, labor, working class issues,
education, health care, etc.
Establishing basic social services for all citizens
§
Postwar politics and Debates on National Identity and State Sovereignty
Collectivist consensus: postwar consensus btwn the UK's major parties to
build and sustain a welfare state
Neoliberal Tories: conservatives who embraced classical liberal values of
limited state intervention
Blamed UK's economic decline on the welfare state (felt it was
excessive -spending)
§
1979: Margaret Thatcher becomes Prime Minister
Pledged to diminish government role in economy
§
Lowered taxes, cut state spending on costly social services,
privatized some state services, ---------
§
2010: hung parliament
No party has majority of the seats
§
Needed to form a coalition
§
Prime Minister Cameron and conservatives formed a coalition with
liberal democrats
§
2014: Scottish independence referendum
Didn’t pass
§
Scotland wanted to leave and separate
§
2015: Tories return to power with clear majority in parliament
2016: referendum on Brexit
Everyone thought it wouldn’t pass but it did, which shocked the
world
§
Britain left the European Union
Voters chose to do so
§
Theresa May was brought in as Prime Minister
§
Institutions:
The Constitution
No single constitution
Several documents and unwritten rules, plus acts of
Parliament, judicial decisions, and traditions serve as an
informal constitution
§
Parliamentary sovereignty
Lower house can amend constitution by simple majority vote
They have the right to amend a constitution, although there is
no paper/written one
Lacks a constitutional court because there is no concrete
constitution that can even be interpreted
"everything the parliament passes is constitutional"
§
Attempts to constitutionally protect human rights
European Convention on Human Rights
§
The Crown
Considered a branch of government, along with the judiciary,
legislature, prime minister, cabinet
§
Ceremonial head of state
§
Must always follow the orders of elected representatives
§
Hereditary monarchy based on primogeniture
Male heirs
Until 2011, PM Cameron abolished male precedence in royal
succession
§
Current monarch is Elizabeth II
§
Prime Minister Branch of Government
Head of government
Elected member of legislature
§
Elected to a maximum term of five years
Can be elected more than once
As long as each term is only 5 years
§
Roles
Head of their own party, supporting party members
Appear for televised question periods
Direct the cabinet
Guide their party to victory in general elections
Hold together factitious coalitions
§
Cabinet and Legislature
Cabinet includes 20 ministers
§
Cabinet has collective responsibility to support laws passed and bills
Assumed that cabinet members will agree with the prime
minister on any bill/policy that comes up
Unanimous support for the bill
If cabinet doesn’t agree and refuses to vote yes and take
responsibility, they must resign
§
Strong party discipline -- do not vote against or cross the party lines
§
Judiciary Branch of Government
Weaker compared to other democracies
Gradually gaining some greater political involvement
§
No constitutional court
§
No judicial review
All laws of the legislature are constitutional
§
Embrace of international laws -- EU
§
Common law (versus code law in the rest of Europe)
§
The Electoral System
Single-member districts with plurality: first past the post (winner takes all
method)
Regional legislatures use other electoral systems
§
Constituencies based on population, revised every five to seven years
What does this system mean for smaller parties?
Slim chance of getting elected into office
§
Local Government
Unitary state not a federal state
No formal powers reserved for regional or local government
§
Different leaders = different regional powers
Blair {labour} = increased regional power
§
Since 2010, Conservatives continued to grant more authority to
local governments
§
Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all have regional governments
Elections
All 650 seats in the House of Commons are selected during a general
election
Election turnout btwn 60-70%
Very high compared to the US but very low compared to the rest of
Europe
§
Campaigns last less than a month
Parties are well-disciplined and have policy manifestos
They lay out what they want to accomplish and promise
§
Written party document that's weighed seriously
§
Allows people to hold the parties accountable for fulfilling what
they said they would
§
Lobbying = quangos: quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations
Class, Ethnic, and National Identity
Remarkable national unity and political stability over the centuries
Class is the most significant social division
Regional disparities in income often coincide with class divide
Southern England = prosperous
§
Northern England = blue-collar, struggling
§
Religi
Political Economy, Ideology, and Culture
Liberal economic model
Post-industrial economy
Economic decline since WWII
Closely tied with the rest of Europe
Brexit will complicate this connection
§
Strongly influenced by classical liberalism
Postwar welfare state
Pragmatic and tolerant liberal culture
Current Issues in the UK
Scotland's Bid for Independence and Brexit
Lecture 11: Developed Democracies and Intro to
Case Studies
Thursday, May 10, 2018
3:30 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

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Objectives for today
Developed Democracies
Four Cases Studied Today
United Kingdom
§
United States
§
Japan
§
Germany
§
What is a developed democracy?
Key elements:
Institutionalized democracy
Firmly embedded political and societal institutions
Stable
E.g. participation, competition, and liberty
§
High level of economic development and prosperity
§
Formerly referred to as "First World" countries
AKA: Advanced industrialized democracies
Problem with this term too because of "industrialized"
®
We're post-industrialized, focusing more on services
and less on manufacturing
®
Wealthier democracies
The other "worlds" were second (commies) and third
(developing nations)
§
Shared characteristics
Economics:
Capitalist economic systems, but can be:
Liberal, social democratic, or mercantilist (varied state
roles)
®
Service sector dominates
This is why we can't really call them "industrialized"
®
High Human Development index (HDI) ratings
Levels of education, life expectancy, etc.
®
§
Politics:
Liberal democratic regimes
All believe in some balance of freedom and equality
§
Political Diversity
All developed democracies are institutionalized
§
Differ in the specifics of freedom and liberties… there are different
rights and regulations
§
Variations in participation
Voter eligibility
Registration rules
Compulsory versus voluntary voting
Compulsory = required voting (Australia)
®
Referenda and initiative use
Referenda: legislature sends something out for the
public to vote on
®
Initiatives: public suggests or requests legislation and
votes on certain issues
®
§
Competition varies in…
Electoral systems
Campaign funding and rules
Some countries place limits
®
Executive power and type
Separation of powers or not
®
§
Economic Diversity
All developed democracies follow capitalism
Belief in private property and free markets
High quality of life
Contribute to significant economic prosperity
§
Varies in regards to…
Levels of inequality across country
Socially democratic countries prioritize equality
®
Role of the state in the economy
Political economic systems
The United States is Liberal
®
Japan is Mercantilist
®
Scandinavia is Socially Democratic
®
§
GENERAL OUTLINE FOR ALL CASES COVERED DURING THE REMAINDER
OF THE COURSE:This is how country cases will be studied for the rest of the course
IntroductionI.
Historical Development of the StateII.
Political RegimeIII.
Political Conflict and CompetitionIV.
Society
Ethnic divisionsa.
Religious divisionsb.
Culturec.
V.
Political EconomyVI.
Concludes: Current Issues in ________ CountryVII.
UNITED KINGDOM
Introduction
Comprised of FOUR nations: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
(not the same as "Ireland" - the Republic of Ireland)
Official name: United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK)
Great Britain = England, Wales, Scotland
§
Republic of Ireland (usually referred to as Ireland) is NOT in the
United Kingdom
§
Why study?
It is the world's oldest/first democracy
§
There is no written constitution in the UK; also no constitutional
court
§
It is the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Also a former imperialist and colonial power
§
Remains influential in modern global politics
§
Historical Development of the State
The Waves of Invasion
A number of invasions that were very impactful
§
Celts: Celtic Fringe (Britain's northern and western perimeter)
§
Germanic Angles and Saxons: provided and began to unify language
§
Norman invasion in 1066: imported feudalism and common law
Common law was a system based on local customs and
precedent rather than formal legal codes
Feudalism: mutual obligation btwn lord and peasant, and
lord/monarch/vassal
§
Emergence of the Modern British State
Early major developments in transition from monarchic to
parliamentary dominance
The Magna Carta (1125)
A promise to uphold feudal rights, which started the
trend of limiting the power of the monarchy
®
Subjecting British monarchs to the rule of law
®
Shifting power away from religious figures
Limiting control of the Catholic Church in the UK
®
Henry VII wanted to get rid of Catholic Church because
they would not allow him to divorce his wife
Used Parliament to pass laws that took England
out of the Catholic Church
England replaced Catholicism with the Protestant
Church
State-controlled Anglican Church was
weaker and less autonomous
}
®
The English Civil War (1642-1651)
Started because Charles I resisted Parliamentary limits
on his power
®
Number of battles shaping the state
®
Between supporters of Parliament and defenders of
Charles I
®
Charles I executed by Parliament in 1649
®
Cromwell's Dictatorship (1649-1660)
After English Civil War, England was a republic under
Oliver Cromwell
®
Republic became a military dictatorship because of
Cromwell's rule
®
Parliament restored monarchy in 1660
®
The 1688 Glorious Revolution
The 1689 Bill of Rights
Issued by Parliament and established a
constitutional monarchy in Britain
Sets out the basis of civil rights in England
®
Creation of the rule of law
No one is above the law
®
Trials by jury evolving
®
Provided for freedom of speech
®
True kernels of democracy coming about
®
1714 Crowning of George I
German royal who barely spoke English
Had to rely on his cabinet and prime minister to
rule
1721-1742: Prime Minister Sir Robert
Walpole (Britain's 1st prime minister)
}
Slowly over time made the parliament more
powerful
®
Shaping the office of the prime minister
®
§
The British Empire
Overseas expansion and conquest from the 16th -- 19th century
Major colonial losses from the 18th to mid-20th century
Empire shrinking
§
Colonies fighting for independence from Britain
§
1982: Brief war over Falkland Islands
UK trying to retain control of a few small colonies
§
Fought with Argentina to keep control of Falkland Islands
§
Britain won
§
1997: Hong Kong returned to China (no longer under British rule)
Commonwealth
Even though colonies are no longer ruled by British
§
Includes the UK and 54 former British colonies to maintain at least
some economic and cultural ties
§
The Industrial Revolutions
UK = first industrial nation
Allowed for colonial expansion
§
Industrial wealth made colonization and imperialism a possibility
§
Societal changes
Urbanization; moving production from rural to urban areas
§
A new middle class
§
The problems of early industrialization
Lavish spending in British empire led to two World Wars for Allied
Forces
Wars = very costly leading to economic decline for UK
§
"first-mover" industrialization
§
Hard to reform economy
§
Gradual Democratization:
Rise of Parties
Parliament initially represented the interests of the wealthy
House of Lords represented aristocracy
House of Commons represented the lower nobility and
merchant class
§
In the 18th Century, two large cliques turned into the Tories
(Conservatives) and Whigs (Liberals)
Tories
Conservatives
®
Supported policies of the monarch
®
Whigs
Liberals
®
Opposed policies of the monarchs
®
First to cultivate support among Britain's commercial
class
®
§
Expansion of Suffrage
1832 Reform Act: doubled the size of the electorate, but more than
90% of adults were excluded
§
1928: Women over 21 were granted the right to vote
§
1969: the voting age was reduced to 18
§
Expanding the vote forced political parties to respond to demands
for more government services
§
Establishment of a Welfare state: The Labour Party came to power
in 1945
More interested in equality, labor, working class issues,
education, health care, etc.
Establishing basic social services for all citizens
§
Postwar politics and Debates on National Identity and State Sovereignty
Collectivist consensus: postwar consensus btwn the UK's major parties to
build and sustain a welfare state
Neoliberal Tories: conservatives who embraced classical liberal values of
limited state intervention
Blamed UK's economic decline on the welfare state (felt it was
excessive -spending)
§
1979: Margaret Thatcher becomes Prime Minister
Pledged to diminish government role in economy
§
Lowered taxes, cut state spending on costly social services,
privatized some state services, ---------
§
2010: hung parliament
No party has majority of the seats
§
Needed to form a coalition
§
Prime Minister Cameron and conservatives formed a coalition with
liberal democrats
§
2014: Scottish independence referendum
Didn’t pass
§
Scotland wanted to leave and separate
§
2015: Tories return to power with clear majority in parliament
2016: referendum on Brexit
Everyone thought it wouldn’t pass but it did, which shocked the
world
§
Britain left the European Union
Voters chose to do so
§
Theresa May was brought in as Prime Minister
§
Institutions:
The Constitution
No single constitution
Several documents and unwritten rules, plus acts of
Parliament, judicial decisions, and traditions serve as an
informal constitution
§
Parliamentary sovereignty
Lower house can amend constitution by simple majority vote
They have the right to amend a constitution, although there is
no paper/written one
Lacks a constitutional court because there is no concrete
constitution that can even be interpreted
"everything the parliament passes is constitutional"
§
Attempts to constitutionally protect human rights
European Convention on Human Rights
§
The Crown
Considered a branch of government, along with the judiciary,
legislature, prime minister, cabinet
§
Ceremonial head of state
§
Must always follow the orders of elected representatives
§
Hereditary monarchy based on primogeniture
Male heirs
Until 2011, PM Cameron abolished male precedence in royal
succession
§
Current monarch is Elizabeth II
§
Prime Minister Branch of Government
Head of government
Elected member of legislature
§
Elected to a maximum term of five years
Can be elected more than once
As long as each term is only 5 years
§
Roles
Head of their own party, supporting party members
Appear for televised question periods
Direct the cabinet
Guide their party to victory in general elections
Hold together factitious coalitions
§
Cabinet and Legislature
Cabinet includes 20 ministers
§
Cabinet has collective responsibility to support laws passed and bills
Assumed that cabinet members will agree with the prime
minister on any bill/policy that comes up
Unanimous support for the bill
If cabinet doesn’t agree and refuses to vote yes and take
responsibility, they must resign
§
Strong party discipline -- do not vote against or cross the party lines
§
Judiciary Branch of Government
Weaker compared to other democracies
Gradually gaining some greater political involvement
§
No constitutional court
§
No judicial review
All laws of the legislature are constitutional
§
Embrace of international laws -- EU
§
Common law (versus code law in the rest of Europe)
§
The Electoral System
Single-member districts with plurality: first past the post (winner takes all
method)
Regional legislatures use other electoral systems
§
Constituencies based on population, revised every five to seven years
What does this system mean for smaller parties?
Slim chance of getting elected into office
§
Local Government
Unitary state not a federal state
No formal powers reserved for regional or local government
§
Different leaders = different regional powers
Blair {labour} = increased regional power
§
Since 2010, Conservatives continued to grant more authority to
local governments
§
Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all have regional governments
Elections
All 650 seats in the House of Commons are selected during a general
election
Election turnout btwn 60-70%
Very high compared to the US but very low compared to the rest of
Europe
§
Campaigns last less than a month
Parties are well-disciplined and have policy manifestos
They lay out what they want to accomplish and promise
§
Written party document that's weighed seriously
§
Allows people to hold the parties accountable for fulfilling what
they said they would
§
Lobbying = quangos: quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations
Class, Ethnic, and National Identity
Remarkable national unity and political stability over the centuries
Class is the most significant social division
Regional disparities in income often coincide with class divide
Southern England = prosperous
§
Northern England = blue-collar, struggling
§
Religi
Political Economy, Ideology, and Culture
Liberal economic model
Post-industrial economy
Economic decline since WWII
Closely tied with the rest of Europe
Brexit will complicate this connection
§
Strongly influenced by classical liberalism
Postwar welfare state
Pragmatic and tolerant liberal culture
Current Issues in the UK
Scotland's Bid for Independence and Brexit
Lecture 11: Developed Democracies and Intro to
Case Studies
Thursday, May 10, 2018
3:30 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Objectives for today
Developed Democracies
Four Cases Studied Today
United Kingdom
§
United States
§
Japan
§
Germany
§
What is a developed democracy?
Key elements:
Institutionalized democracy
Firmly embedded political and societal institutions
Stable
E.g. participation, competition, and liberty
§
High level of economic development and prosperity
§
Formerly referred to as "First World" countries
AKA: Advanced industrialized democracies
Problem with this term too because of "industrialized"
®
We're post-industrialized, focusing more on services
and less on manufacturing
®
Wealthier democracies
The other "worlds" were second (commies) and third
(developing nations)
§
Shared characteristics
Economics:
Capitalist economic systems, but can be:
Liberal, social democratic, or mercantilist (varied state
roles)
®
Service sector dominates
This is why we can't really call them "industrialized"
®
High Human Development index (HDI) ratings
Levels of education, life expectancy, etc.
®
§
Politics:
Liberal democratic regimes
All believe in some balance of freedom and equality
§
Political Diversity
All developed democracies are institutionalized
§
Differ in the specifics of freedom and liberties… there are different
rights and regulations
§
Variations in participation
Voter eligibility
Registration rules
Compulsory versus voluntary voting
Compulsory = required voting (Australia)
Referenda and initiative use
Referenda: legislature sends something out for the
public to vote on
Initiatives: public suggests or requests legislation and
votes on certain issues
§
Competition varies in…
Electoral systems
Campaign funding and rules
Some countries place limits
Executive power and type
Separation of powers or not
§
Economic Diversity
All developed democracies follow capitalism
Belief in private property and free markets
High quality of life
Contribute to significant economic prosperity
§
Varies in regards to…
Levels of inequality across country
Socially democratic countries prioritize equality
Role of the state in the economy
Political economic systems
The United States is Liberal
Japan is Mercantilist
Scandinavia is Socially Democratic
§
GENERAL OUTLINE FOR ALL CASES COVERED DURING THE REMAINDER
OF THE COURSE:This is how country cases will be studied for the rest of the course
IntroductionI.
Historical Development of the StateII.
Political RegimeIII.
Political Conflict and CompetitionIV.
Society
Ethnic divisionsa.
Religious divisionsb.
Culturec.
V.
Political EconomyVI.
Concludes: Current Issues in ________ CountryVII.
UNITED KINGDOM
Introduction
Comprised of FOUR nations: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
(not the same as "Ireland" - the Republic of Ireland)
Official name: United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK)
Great Britain = England, Wales, Scotland
§
Republic of Ireland (usually referred to as Ireland) is NOT in the
United Kingdom
§
Why study?
It is the world's oldest/first democracy
§
There is no written constitution in the UK; also no constitutional
court
§
It is the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Also a former imperialist and colonial power
§
Remains influential in modern global politics
§
Historical Development of the State
The Waves of Invasion
A number of invasions that were very impactful
§
Celts: Celtic Fringe (Britain's northern and western perimeter)
§
Germanic Angles and Saxons: provided and began to unify language
§
Norman invasion in 1066: imported feudalism and common law
Common law was a system based on local customs and
precedent rather than formal legal codes
Feudalism: mutual obligation btwn lord and peasant, and
lord/monarch/vassal
§
Emergence of the Modern British State
Early major developments in transition from monarchic to
parliamentary dominance
The Magna Carta (1125)
A promise to uphold feudal rights, which started the
trend of limiting the power of the monarchy
®
Subjecting British monarchs to the rule of law
®
Shifting power away from religious figures
Limiting control of the Catholic Church in the UK
®
Henry VII wanted to get rid of Catholic Church because
they would not allow him to divorce his wife
Used Parliament to pass laws that took England
out of the Catholic Church
England replaced Catholicism with the Protestant
Church
State-controlled Anglican Church was
weaker and less autonomous
}
®
The English Civil War (1642-1651)
Started because Charles I resisted Parliamentary limits
on his power
®
Number of battles shaping the state
®
Between supporters of Parliament and defenders of
Charles I
®
Charles I executed by Parliament in 1649
®
Cromwell's Dictatorship (1649-1660)
After English Civil War, England was a republic under
Oliver Cromwell
®
Republic became a military dictatorship because of
Cromwell's rule
®
Parliament restored monarchy in 1660
®
The 1688 Glorious Revolution
The 1689 Bill of Rights
Issued by Parliament and established a
constitutional monarchy in Britain
Sets out the basis of civil rights in England
®
Creation of the rule of law
No one is above the law
®
Trials by jury evolving
®
Provided for freedom of speech
®
True kernels of democracy coming about
®
1714 Crowning of George I
German royal who barely spoke English
Had to rely on his cabinet and prime minister to
rule
1721-1742: Prime Minister Sir Robert
Walpole (Britain's 1st prime minister)
}
Slowly over time made the parliament more
powerful
®
Shaping the office of the prime minister
®
§
The British Empire
Overseas expansion and conquest from the 16th -- 19th century
Major colonial losses from the 18th to mid-20th century
Empire shrinking
§
Colonies fighting for independence from Britain
§
1982: Brief war over Falkland Islands
UK trying to retain control of a few small colonies
§
Fought with Argentina to keep control of Falkland Islands
§
Britain won
§
1997: Hong Kong returned to China (no longer under British rule)
Commonwealth
Even though colonies are no longer ruled by British
§
Includes the UK and 54 former British colonies to maintain at least
some economic and cultural ties
§
The Industrial Revolutions
UK = first industrial nation
Allowed for colonial expansion
§
Industrial wealth made colonization and imperialism a possibility
§
Societal changes
Urbanization; moving production from rural to urban areas
§
A new middle class
§
The problems of early industrialization
Lavish spending in British empire led to two World Wars for Allied
Forces
Wars = very costly leading to economic decline for UK
§
"first-mover" industrialization
§
Hard to reform economy
§
Gradual Democratization:
Rise of Parties
Parliament initially represented the interests of the wealthy
House of Lords represented aristocracy
House of Commons represented the lower nobility and
merchant class
§
In the 18th Century, two large cliques turned into the Tories
(Conservatives) and Whigs (Liberals)
Tories
Conservatives
®
Supported policies of the monarch
®
Whigs
Liberals
®
Opposed policies of the monarchs
®
First to cultivate support among Britain's commercial
class
®
§
Expansion of Suffrage
1832 Reform Act: doubled the size of the electorate, but more than
90% of adults were excluded
§
1928: Women over 21 were granted the right to vote
§
1969: the voting age was reduced to 18
§
Expanding the vote forced political parties to respond to demands
for more government services
§
Establishment of a Welfare state: The Labour Party came to power
in 1945
More interested in equality, labor, working class issues,
education, health care, etc.
Establishing basic social services for all citizens
§
Postwar politics and Debates on National Identity and State Sovereignty
Collectivist consensus: postwar consensus btwn the UK's major parties to
build and sustain a welfare state
Neoliberal Tories: conservatives who embraced classical liberal values of
limited state intervention
Blamed UK's economic decline on the welfare state (felt it was
excessive -spending)
§
1979: Margaret Thatcher becomes Prime Minister
Pledged to diminish government role in economy
§
Lowered taxes, cut state spending on costly social services,
privatized some state services, ---------
§
2010: hung parliament
No party has majority of the seats
§
Needed to form a coalition
§
Prime Minister Cameron and conservatives formed a coalition with
liberal democrats
§
2014: Scottish independence referendum
Didn’t pass
§
Scotland wanted to leave and separate
§
2015: Tories return to power with clear majority in parliament
2016: referendum on Brexit
Everyone thought it wouldn’t pass but it did, which shocked the
world
§
Britain left the European Union
Voters chose to do so
§
Theresa May was brought in as Prime Minister
§
Institutions:
The Constitution
No single constitution
Several documents and unwritten rules, plus acts of
Parliament, judicial decisions, and traditions serve as an
informal constitution
§
Parliamentary sovereignty
Lower house can amend constitution by simple majority vote
They have the right to amend a constitution, although there is
no paper/written one
Lacks a constitutional court because there is no concrete
constitution that can even be interpreted
"everything the parliament passes is constitutional"
§
Attempts to constitutionally protect human rights
European Convention on Human Rights
§
The Crown
Considered a branch of government, along with the judiciary,
legislature, prime minister, cabinet
§
Ceremonial head of state
§
Must always follow the orders of elected representatives
§
Hereditary monarchy based on primogeniture
Male heirs
Until 2011, PM Cameron abolished male precedence in royal
succession
§
Current monarch is Elizabeth II
§
Prime Minister Branch of Government
Head of government
Elected member of legislature
§
Elected to a maximum term of five years
Can be elected more than once
As long as each term is only 5 years
§
Roles
Head of their own party, supporting party members
Appear for televised question periods
Direct the cabinet
Guide their party to victory in general elections
Hold together factitious coalitions
§
Cabinet and Legislature
Cabinet includes 20 ministers
§
Cabinet has collective responsibility to support laws passed and bills
Assumed that cabinet members will agree with the prime
minister on any bill/policy that comes up
Unanimous support for the bill
If cabinet doesn’t agree and refuses to vote yes and take
responsibility, they must resign
§
Strong party discipline -- do not vote against or cross the party lines
§
Judiciary Branch of Government
Weaker compared to other democracies
Gradually gaining some greater political involvement
§
No constitutional court
§
No judicial review
All laws of the legislature are constitutional
§
Embrace of international laws -- EU
§
Common law (versus code law in the rest of Europe)
§
The Electoral System
Single-member districts with plurality: first past the post (winner takes all
method)
Regional legislatures use other electoral systems
§
Constituencies based on population, revised every five to seven years
What does this system mean for smaller parties?
Slim chance of getting elected into office
§
Local Government
Unitary state not a federal state
No formal powers reserved for regional or local government
§
Different leaders = different regional powers
Blair {labour} = increased regional power
§
Since 2010, Conservatives continued to grant more authority to
local governments
§
Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all have regional governments
Elections
All 650 seats in the House of Commons are selected during a general
election
Election turnout btwn 60-70%
Very high compared to the US but very low compared to the rest of
Europe
§
Campaigns last less than a month
Parties are well-disciplined and have policy manifestos
They lay out what they want to accomplish and promise
§
Written party document that's weighed seriously
§
Allows people to hold the parties accountable for fulfilling what
they said they would
§
Lobbying = quangos: quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations
Class, Ethnic, and National Identity
Remarkable national unity and political stability over the centuries
Class is the most significant social division
Regional disparities in income often coincide with class divide
Southern England = prosperous
§
Northern England = blue-collar, struggling
§
Religi
Political Economy, Ideology, and Culture
Liberal economic model
Post-industrial economy
Economic decline since WWII
Closely tied with the rest of Europe
Brexit will complicate this connection
§
Strongly influenced by classical liberalism
Postwar welfare state
Pragmatic and tolerant liberal culture
Current Issues in the UK
Scotland's Bid for Independence and Brexit
Lecture 11: Developed Democracies and Intro to
Case Studies
Thursday, May 10, 2018 3:30 PM
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Document Summary

Problem with this term too because of industrialized We"re post-industrialized, focusing more on services and less on manufacturing. The other worlds were second (commies) and third (developing nations) Liberal, social democratic, or mercantilist (varied state roles) This is why we can"t really call them industrialized All believe in some balance of freedom and equality. Differ in the specifics of freedom and liberties there are different rights and regulations. Referenda: legislature sends something out for the public to vote on. Initiatives: public suggests or requests legislation and votes on certain issues. General outline for all cases covered during the remainder. Of the course: this is how country cases will be studied for the rest of the course. Comprised of four nations: england, wales, scotland, northern ireland (not the same as ireland - the republic of ireland) Official name: united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland (uk) Republic of ireland (usually referred to as ireland) is not in the.

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