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Psych 1 – Neuroscience 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM Is the brain also the mind? o Monism – physical and mental are one  Idealism – all is thought (drink imaginary water to fulfill imaginary thirst)  Materialism – all is physical (chemicals, atoms, etc.)  Radio = hardware; music = software  same radio plays different stations, but still the same radio o Dualism – physical and mental are different aspects of reality  Interactionism – humans are robots that react to different sensations; brain meets body without invading soul  Psychophysical parallelism – at birth, God fused human soul to human body with preordained trajectory; soul would record all experiences of the body until death where soul went to mental world and body physically died o “brain in a vat” problem (hypothetical problem)  woman with horrible brain tumor (deadly, but can’t be seen)  surgeons want to try to take the brain out of her skull and work on it from all different angles to cure her  brain outside of skull would dry out, so must put brain in a vat of fluids; must also connect to artificial heart to keep it alive  if surgeon keeps woman in bed, she could die of blood clots, etc.  connects her brain to her body electronically so she can operate in the hospital without having her physical brain in her skull  QUESTION: Is she her body, or is she her brain? Where is she?  Who has big brains? o Weights 1400 g (3 lbs) in average adult o Taller people have bigger, heavier brains o Males have bigger brains than females o Animal kingdom: brain size and weight are unrelated to intelligence o Humans: brain size and weight are weakly related to intelligence o Humans have proportionally the biggest brains in comparison to the size of our bodies (looking at chart of animal body weight vs. brain weight)  Human brain case  Hard casing with age, but born = soft, non-touching casing  How do we study the brain?  Humans  clinical (patient) studies o Returning soldiers  Humans and non-humans  experimental studies o Invasive o Non-invasive (neuroimaging)  Clinical studies o Neuropathologies  Cerebrovascular accidents (cva’s, strokes)  Thrombotic/embolic stroke  Hemorrhagic stroke  Raptured aneurysms  Traumatic brain injury  Tumors, degenerative diseases o During neurosurgery under local anesthesia o Neuropsychological testing  Brain “localization” o Brain has numerous parts; interconnected by circular pathways o Is there “localization of function”?  Strict localization view – each specific part of the brain does one specific thing  “mass action” view – all parts of the brain do everything  resolution: specialization but not strict localization  old localization view (phrenology) – if you’re good at a certain talent, the part of the brain that controlled that talent was larger than the rest of your brain; just feel skull for enlarged sections  neurosurgical mapping – tap sections of brain to see different reactions is experimental patients  modern localization (neuroimaging) – MRI’s, take images and project them in 3D, etc.  Spontaneous Brain Activity  Brain is constantly moving and working  Instructor’s Head  Electron brain tomography scanning (ebt)  fMRI DTI – wiring different sections of the brain to other sections; making connections across sections Psych 1 – Brain Segments 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM  Major Brain Segments  Forebrain  midbrain  hindbrain  spinal cord  Head  tail  Neurogenesis: video we watched in class, online?  Human Neural Development  6 gestational months old  hindbrain and midbrain nearly similar in size; forebrain much larger hindbrain  Hindbrain  cerebellum “little brain” o second largest single structure of the brain o “old” (inner) cerebellum – balance; linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyeballs  boat sickness relates to balance of body and ground  human body is like building blocks; blocks must be straight and stable for blocks above to be added  bones, level head, balance, etc.  when drinking alcohol, inner cerebellum quickly messed with; balance issues when drunk o “new” (outer) cerebellum – rapid automatic movements; timing of movements and thoughts  trying to perfect backhand in tennis: your body slowly gets better at things with practice; muscle memory; teaching your outer cerebellum a sequence  thinking about things less consciously leads to better performance (the less you think about things, the less you screw them up)  pons “bridge” o fibers that crisscross; lead to thickness o left side of brain controls right side of body; right side of brain controls left side of body  caused by pons’ crisscross fibers o protective reflexes o infant “pathological” reflexes (see below) o orienting reflexes  jaw dropping  ear flaps/muscles moving  heartbeats slowing down  heads turning o cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes  kicking heart into high gear; preparing heart for exercise  yawning; build up of carbon dioxide that needs to be released  vomitting  medulla “heart” o cut horizontally looks like a heart o protective reflexes o infant “pathological” reflexes (see below) o orienting reflexes (see above) o cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes (see above)  Hindbrain reflexes  Babinski Reflex: curling and uncurling toes  Rooting reflex: breast feeding reflexes; reflex disappears when breast feeding period ends  Maro reflex: slightly drop head  child lifts arms up and tries to grab; reflex comes from gorillas when mom lets go of baby and baby must grab on to mom in order not to fall off  Patellar tendon reflex: knee kicking reflex  Midbrain  Midbrain reticular formation o General arousal o Sleep/wake cycles o Pain perception  How much do things hurt  Humans have the ability to modulate how things hurt  Hurt toe badly, purposefully hurt finger to forget about toe pain  115 lb hammer on toe = pain  running when I weigh 115 lbs doesn’t hurt because I modulate the pain  Superior and inferior colliculli o Superior (left and right)  Visual targeting  Saccadic eye movements/ saccades  Jerks from left to right  Eyes need targets to follow  Fridlund’s example of walking across screen o Inferior (left and right)  Auditory targeting  Used in orienting reflex (when someone coughs, you turn your head to find source of the sound) Brain Segments Continued 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM  Forebrain  Basal forebrain (hypothalamus and thalamus) (right above midbrain) o Hypothalamus (control of):  Pituitary gland  thyroid, adrenals, bone growth  Autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system  Controls of hunger, thirst, body temperature, and induction of fever (pyrogens)  Sexual orientation  Differences in hypothalamus very obvious in gay vs. straight men  harder to observe in gay women vs. straight women  Reward and punishment  FUN FACT: drugs effect the same spot of the brain as sex and food o Thalamus: sensory relay station  Sensory information passed from spinal cord to thalamus  then to different areas of the brain  Old cortex o Limbic system  Complex reaction patterns (4 F’s)  Feeding  Fighting  Fleeing  Population o Basal ganglia  Background postural (axial) movements  Throwing a ball (setting body in the right posture to throw/twist)  Smooth pursuit eye movements  Target following in smooth movements by using basal ganglia  Regulation of foreground/background thinking (breakdown = OCD)  Ex: shifting thoughts from math to English in between class periods  Obsessive compulsive disorder  fixation upon certain thoughts; can’t concentrate on other things  Diseases involving basal ganglia  Parkinson’s disease (ex: Michael J. Fox)  Resting tremor  Rigidity  Slowed movements  Confusion  Huntington’s Chorea (ex: Woody Guthrie)  Involuntary movements  Impaired speech/swallowing  Staggering gait  Depression, irritability  Short-term memory loss  New Cortex (Neocortex) o Complex perception  navigation o Strategic movements  Making correct, strategic movements in the world o Higher intellectual functions  Strategizing, counting, simulating o Social “Machiavellian” intelligence  Ability to regulate behavior based on relationships with other people  Social cues, relationship status, history of interaction, etc.  Example: Asperger’s - social intelligence deficiency o QUESTION: Why is it all smushed up on top of each other?  Women need to be able to birth children! If the brain is too big, it’s impossible to birth. o Lobes of the Neocortex  Frontal lobe  Strategic thinking  Social cognition  Short-term memory  Language/music production  Voluntary movements  Prefrontal area  Mature completely at 30 years of age  Parietal lobe  Complex visual/touch perception  Right – body sense  Left – arithmetic, L/R sense  Locating things in space (that’s a person)  Damage to right side of parietal lobe  lose sense of left side of body; literally just doesn’t exist as opposed to knowing it’s there, but can’t use it  Temporal lobe  Hearing and language decoding  Long-term memory  Face/object identification  Remembering things particular to you (that’s mom)  Occipital lobe  Visual pattern recognition  Optical “grasping” Perception 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM  Is perception “veridical”?  Veridical  true  Do we really perceive the world as it is?  Theories of perception  “bottom-up theories”  perception is an integration of tiny stimulus elements; we see and then interpret what we see o dotted lines form triangle; no triangle there, but manufacture it from little pieces of data  “top-down theories”  perception is a strategy that determines what stimuli we seek and then integrate; what we interpret determines what we see o “the cat”  expectations about what the H/A should be make us determine how to read the line  psychophysics  psycho  mind (world of the spirit)  physik  nature (world of things)  by Gustav Fechner 1860  four basic questions o detection – is anything there? o Recognition – what is it? o Scaling – how much of it is there? o Discrimination – are these things different?  Ex: coke versus pepsi  Thresholds (Limen)  Absolute limen: the weakest stimulus that can be detected reliably o Under threshold: subliminal o Over threshold: supraliminal  Difference limen: the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected reliably  Fundamental properties of perception  Perception is active  Perception is selective  Perception is of patterns o Ambiguous figures  Skull vs. woman in mirror  Illusion inception  mirror reflections  Man and women with big hats vs. donkey with big ears o Stimuli in context  Left or right circle bigger? SAME SIZE  SUV’s around curve  Adelson illusion  Tiles A and B are same color, although A looks significantly darker than B o Lateral inhibition (contrast enhancement)  Staring at black dot  gray haze shrinks o Anomalous motion illusion  Yellow background with yellow dots; squirmy movements o Depth and anomalous motion  “ouchi illusion” o kayahara dancer illusion  spinning dancer in different directions o illusions need not to be visual  shepard tones  visual barberpole where lines keep descending  auditory barberpole illusion  sound keeps decreasing  perception requires attention o “change blindness”  changing construction worker during giving directions  plates changing color mid conversation; scarf comes off; food switches on plate  gorilla in the middle of basketball players  perception is lateralized o left side of brain = sees right half of space o right side of brain = sees left half of space  perception is also graded  perception is coded  perception is construction o necker cube example o never-ending staircase Sleep 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM  Polysomnography  EEG – electroencephalogram  EOG – electrooculogram  EMG – enectromyogram  EKG – electrocardiogram  RR - respiration rate  O2/CO2 saturation/desaturation  Dual sleep  Non-REM (rapid eye movements) sleep o Stage 1  Transition between wakefulness and clear sleep o Stage 2  First bona fide sleep stage; “point of no return” at onset (really sleepy wile studying, feel like you’re falling and you jerk yourself back up) o Stages 3 + 4 or Delta – deepest, most restful type of sleep  Physiological relaxation  Slow, rolling eye movements  Mundane “talking” dreams (“have to get notebook, notes, the bread, shopping”)  Growth hormone secretions  Deficient thermoregulation o Waking people from non-REM sleep = slow, groggy, takes a while to wake up  REM sleep o EEG similar to waking state o Heightened physiological activity o Rapid, jerky, desynchronous eye movements  WHY? Cornea is only structure in body without its own blood supply; must keep blinking to keep fresh supply of tears over corneas  keeps corneas alive o Erection of sexual tissue  both men and women become sexually aroused  women lubricate  men get erections  WHY? Male needs blood in sexual organ to insert; woman needs blood flowing through vaginal tissue otherwise it dries out and penis can’t be inserted o Vivid visual dreams o Reduced by nearly all drugs/medications o Striate muscle tone greatly reduced (except for birds)  REM without atonia  Sleep paralysis o Waking people from REM sleep = instantly awake o EEG changes during sleep  Increasing from stage 1 to stage 4  slowly increases in amplitude as you get farther into stages  Qualities of dual sleep o All orders of mammals have dual sleep except monotremes and cetaceans (anteaters, duckbill platypi, shales) o 85% of mammals have polyphasic sleep  humans, except infants, have monophasic sleep, and shouldn’t try to be polyphasic o human sleep-wake cycle is governed by an internal 25 hour circadian rhythm tuned externally to 24 hour by the sun; mammals differ widely in how long they sleep o human REM periods alternate with non-REM periods according to a 90-100 minute ultradian rhythm; mammals differ in how fast they cycle between REM and NREM sleep o REM periods last longer as the night progresses o REM sleep can be exhausting  REM sleep across the human life span o newborn = polyphasic sleep o infant = moves slowly toward monophasic sleep o as person gets older, less and less sleep (of which less and less of that sleep is REM) is necessary to function  overall sleep gets lighter and wakefulness gets “sleepier”  aging is often accompanied by chronic sleep deprivation due to: illness, pain, breathing problems, frequent need to urinate  Cetacean Sleep o Each hemisphere takes turns sleeping (no REM sleep) o Why shouldn’t cetaceans have REM sleep?  They’re conscious surface breathers, so if they REM sleep, they wouldn’t be able to tell the body to go to the surface of the water to breathe; they’d die  Typical Night’s Sleep  Time 0 – go to bed  Time 5-10: enter stage 1 sleep (hypnogogic hallucinations)  Time 10-15: transition from stage 1 to stage 2 “point of no return” o Myoclonic jerk  Time 45: transition from stage 2 to delta sleep o Delta sleep is best, deepest, most replenishing sleep  Brain mechanisms in sleep  Sleep onset is triggered by release of melatonin from pineal gland  Pineal gland controlled by “pacemaker” neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus; regulates the circadian rhythm  The switches between REM and NREM sleep are controlled by multiple areas in hindbrain (pons) and midbrain (reticular formation)  Dreams are initiated by prefrontal area of the brain  Theories about sleep  Anti-predator adaptation – sleep forces us to be quiet at certain times of the day o Issue: it makes us vulnerable to predators  Restorative – sleep helps us recover something depleted during wakefulness o Issue: nothing in the body (physiologically speaking) that uses energy and recharges with sleep  Facilitates learning – sleep (especially REM) might help us consolidate memories o Issue: tried to be tested  deprive people of REM sleep (give them something to remember before sleep), can’t remember; when you derive people of REM sleep you deprive them of total sleep in general (when sleep deprived, people are cranky and distractible  worse at remembering things) OVERALL BAD THEORY TO TEST  Thermoregulatory – sleep (alternating REM with NREM sleep) keeps us from overheating, and helps conserve energy o Issue: temperature varies depending on environment you’re sleeping in; don’t save that many calories from theory  None of these theories work very well  Effects of sleep deprivation  Missing 1 night: results in sleepiness and slight cognitive and motor impairment  Missing 2 nights: causes progressive cognitive and motor impairment  “Microsleeps” begin to intrude upon wakefulness  Can temporarily alleviate depression/trigger mania  Compromises immune function and increases risk of many illnesses  REM rebound on resuming sleep o Each REM period longer on succeeding nights  Elements of sleep hygiene  Power naps after lunch for no longer than 30 minutes  longer take sleep time from night and cause sleep inertia; caffeine and power naps… not caffeine alone  Chronic, constant, moderate exercise  No after-dinner exercise  Minimal stimulant use  Constant sleep/wake up times (catching up on sleep) and no weekend sleep ins (oversleeping makes you sleep drunk)  burn lots of calories REMing (when you wake up and go back to sleep), which makes you tired  Minimal noise  Darkness and stillness  Constant diet  Sleep-anxiety cycles: cause and prevention  Dreams  Dream in both REM and NREM sleep  REM sleep dreams are more visual and active  Dream time is real time (no dream condensation)  Few dreams are bizarre; most reflect current life preoccupations  Themes of one’s dreams vary little year after year  Dreams have no known function (we can’t turn off thinking)  Dreams can be controlled with practice (lucid dreaming)  Dreams contain more: o Bad outcomes rather than good ones o Negative emotions than positive ones o Aggressive interactions than friendly ones  Dream content o Children: tend to have fantastic rather than realistic dreams; about animals more than people; more likely to be victims than aggressors o Men: dream more about other men 70% o Women: dream 50/50 men vs. women o Sex dreams uncommon: often involve people that dreamers aren’t attracted to o Aggression in men’s dreams tends to be physical; women’s dreams it is relational (just as in waking life) o Women dream often about weddings not going well; pregnant women/new mom’s dream about babies and birth going wrong  Sleep disoders  Insomnia: can’t go to sleep easily/wake up too soon o Mental or physical illness o Aches, pains, discomforts of old age o Use of stimulant drugs/medications/foods o Muscle jerks (nocturnal myoclonus) o Breathing problems (sleep apneas)  Central apnea  Airway (obstructive) apnea  Hypersomnia: always sleepy and sleep-prone o Narcolepsy: excitedness causing loss of ability to control muscles  Factors promoting insomnia o Multiple jobs o Loss of extended family for childcare o Lengthening of work day (40 hr week to 50-60 hr week) o Long work hours as status symbol o 24 hour society  consequences of insomnia disorders  physical illness, reduced ability to handle stress, accident proneness, etc. Conditioning and Learning 9/22/2011 12:27:00 PM  foundations of conditioning  Aristotle: laws of association o Frequency – how often something happens makes you believe certain things (seeing people together multiple times makes you think they’re friends/lovers) o Intensity – lightning and thunder intense, go together o Contiguity – special (space) and temporal (time)  Concept of reflex: rene Descartes o Body as machine  British empiricism o We’re born a blank slate and acquire knowledge of the world based on our experiences  John locke: tabula rasa (blank slate) doctrine  David hume: s-s building blocks  Robert whytt: physiology of reflexes  Ivan Pavlov (classical conditioning) o Lectures on the function of the principal digestive glands, lectures on conditioned reflexes (lemon example in class) o Two basic kinds of reflexes (S  R)  Wired in reflexes  Ex: salivation, gag, orienting, limb withdrawl  Occur unconditionally (didn’t have to be arranged in a lab)  Unconditional refexes (US (stimulus)  UR (response))  Psychic reflexes  Appear after specific experiences (acquired after certain experiences/time)  Occur conditionally  Conditional reflexes (CS (conditional stimulus)  CR (conditional response))  US  UR (unconditional reflexes)  Ex: salivation to food    CS  CR (conditional reflexes)  Ex: salivation to bell  Acquisition (learning)  Start with unconditional reflex (meat  slurp)  Predict US using CS many times (bell  meat  slurp)  Extinction (testing)  After predicting US using CS many times (bell  meat  slurp)  Test with only CS (omit US) and check for response: bell  slurp?  Other examples: patellar tendon reflex (in humans), post traumatic stress disorder (humans from combat, rape victims), binge-purge behavior (bulimia), anxiety related insomnia  Applications of classical (pavlovian) conditioning  Phobias o Little Albert (Watson and Raynor, 1920)  Emotional reactions are classically conditioned, so Watson wanted to “sell” pavlovian conditioning to change people  Systematic desensitization o Freeing up a response that you want  Aversive conditioning (clockwork orange therapy) o Stamp out a response you don’t want  Addictions (Jack Daniels example)  Obesity (make yourself ill/take “queasy” drugs to make you not eat)  Ego-dystonic homosexuality (change me to being straight)  Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning)  Classical conditioning presupposes a passive creature  Instead, animals act to change their environments  Much of animal learning isn’t reflexive but adaptive and flexible  Such adaptive learning is controlled by its consequences  Based on earlier studies by Edward Thorndike o “cats in a puzzle box” o cat learning by insight to open box to retrieve food o discovered cat’s don’t have “aha” moments (no insight; animals learn through trial and error) o Thorndike’s law of effect  S (stimulus) - - - R (response)  consequence  An organism whose actions lead to a satisfying state of affairs is likely to repeat those actions (food outside of the box)  An organism whose actions lead to an “annoying” state of affairs is unlikely to repeat those actions (animal shocked when get out of the box)  ABC’s of operant conditi
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