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Sexual repro lecture pt 2

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Mating systems - standard cross cultural sample - most human cultures allow polygyny - in those cultures polygyny is restricted to the well to do minority and most men in these cultures have only 1 wife Sexual orientation - Heterosexuality > 90% of the population - not everyone is heteronorative but lots of media is directed as so - Gay males ~4% of people & lesbians ~2% of people - across all cultures - Bisexual males & females - - ambiguous definitions lead to widely discreet % - usually represented by straight people & fence sitters who exploit heterosexual privilege - many bisexuals are criticized by straight & gays because they "cant make up their mind" - some people are just attracted to people - no matter the gender - Sexuality is a trait that people discover - still punishable by death or jail time in some cultures still Early Hypotheses on Origin of Sexual Orientation - Family relations (Freudian theory) - not correct theory - - Rejecting, punitive father - retreated to femininity by default & becamesubservient to other men - Weak father, domineering mother: evidence suggests reversal of cause-and-effect - - son had mixed sex role information and became weak and pushed around by mother - Freudian family dynamics theory has been tested - many gay men do report their fathers were somewhat absent - Majority of gay men do not becomeeffeminent- so daddoesnt not believe that son will be gay and has no psychological distancing to boy which disproves freuds theory - Sexual segregation - - Early sexual behavior (imprinting) - - Theory that all boy or all girl schools promote homosexuality - same percentage of homosexuality so not true, however greater risk of pedophiles being in these communities (ex. boy scouts) - Seduction / abuse by older male - - Theory that a young boy being abused or molested can turn his gay - not true doesnt change orientation - ex. Alter boys molested bypriests have lots of psychological damage, but their orientation is not changed - Tribe in new guinea where older males receive bow jobs from younger males topass on knowledge about the tribe and hunting until they are old enough and the new men do the same to boys - most still marry and are straight -disproves theory of abuse by older male - Early same-sex play - - Men usually know earlier that they are gay/straight/bi and have more certainty - Womens are much more fluid and context bound - vary over time and by person ~All of these are now discredited theories Modern Hypotheses: Sexual Orientation as a Correlated Variation of Prenatal Androgens - people used to believeequal orientation was ALL culture and no biological correlates, this isuntrue there is a tie with both - biological aspects to being homosexual - building blocks of sexuality are discovered and develop very early in life Females: - Exposure to higher-than-usual levels of prenatal androgens may contribute to homosexual orientation - - more likely to be lesbian or bisexual with higher Androgens when in womb - - otoacoustic emissions differ with sexual orientation- ping in ear analogy, lesbians vs. straight hear the ping differently - in women with a homosexual orientation, right-hand 2Digit:4Digit finger lengths are lower (more like those of men) - in women who are straight - ring finger is usually shorter than middle; in lesbians ring & middle sameish length - Reversed in gay men; gay men have shorter ring finger and longer middle vs straight males whose are ~same length - Left handed people are 50% more likely to be gay Males: - Gay men can be genetic - lots of men in family are gay is when its typically genetic (~20%) - Women who have gay sons are typically SUPER fertile & have many kids - May be an X-linked trait (region Xq28) that promotes fertility in females; no comparable gene isolated for females. - each older biological (not step-) brother raises the probability of homosexual orientation by 33% - But men with a homosexual orientation may have received greater prenatal androgen exposure: - - more masculine auditory evoked potentials - larger genitalia - greater by in - 1 inch not erect - more sexual partners than heterosexual men or women of either orientation - mixed results on right-hand 2D:4D finger lengths Typical 2D:4D Ratios: Handedness and Sexual Orientation Hair Patterning and Male Sexual Orientation Gay Males and Stereotypes The Myth of Gaydar Some Features of Human Mating System III - Sometimes second cousins fall in love after meeting on internet - Incest taboo and ou
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