Developmental Psychology lecture notes.docx

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PSY 105
German Pupato

Lecture 1 - Logistics 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Logistics  Lectures posted online  Contact info o Tamsin German o [email protected] o office hours: Thursday 11:15-12:15 @ Psychology East 3807 (right before class)  when emailing  use class name/number in subject of email  T.A.  Michael Barlev o [email protected] o office hours: Monday 10:00-12:00 @ building 411 Room 110D  suggested complementary reading  Child Development, Rutherford, M.D. (2011)  evaluations o midterms  January 29 th(25% or 0%) th  February 12 (cumulative, 25% or 50%) o Final (noncumulative) th  Monday March 18 @ 12:00 pm (50%) o Pink parscores, multiple choice Lecture 2 – Basic ?‟s/Basic Theoretical Ideas 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  What is developmental psychology?  Developmental psychology – science involving the description and explanation of changes over time in the structure, thought, or behavior of a person  Note: not “just development”; ALWAYS development in relation to a specific ability or trait o Understanding the world of physical objects o Understanding the social world o Language o Emotion o Personality o Morality o Gender  Biology and environment (nature and nurture)  Biology – the genes we receive from our parents; development as a process of maturation  Why not nature/nurture? o Environments can be physical AS WELL AS social o Environment = people, social, drugs in womb, etc.  Genes and environment in determining: where does knowledge come from? o Knowledge is coded for in the genes  development is a proves of triggering or maturing this knowledge  Idea of “initial knowledge”  Ex: Plato, Hall, Gesell o Knowledge is learned via experience  Emphasis on rearing environment and specifics of learning  Idea of “blank state”  Ex: Locke, Watson, Skinner  Theories that emphasize learning from environment suggest limited initial structure  Philosophical tradition: “tabula rasa”/blank slate (John Locke)  Knowledge from the outside, combined by simple GENERAL learning mechanisms  Pavlov‟s classical conditioning (the Office)  Watson‟s research on little Albert  Skinner‟s operant conditioning  Positive behaviors rewarded  Negative behaviors punished  Ex: Pigeons playing ping pong/being able to eat; The Big Bang Theory (chocolate/Penny positive reinforcement)  Blank slate style theories imply that learning is general  Problems (about numbers, people, objects) o Lead to  General purpose learning o Lead to  Actions  But there are problems with assuming general learning  Human brains can solve a huge variety of different problems  Some people doubt that there are really any “general” solutions to such a wide variety of problems  Even simple learning appears to be specialized  Food  nausea  taste aversion  Tone  nausea  no learning   Tone  shock  place aversion  Food  shock  no learning  Alternative: multiple specialized learning devices  Problems  specialized learning  actions  Ex: TV remote, DVD remote, TiVo remote, etc.  “core knowledge” in a number of biologically important areas  the slate is not blank  instead, there is preexisting structure in the infant‟s mind that may not need to be learned: o early developing/innate “core” knowledge o specialized in SOME important domains o skeletal understanding rather than full “adult like” competence o provides a foundation that guides later learning from experience  not either/or, but what balance exists for a given ability  not either/or, but how do biology and environment work together o ex: human face expertise  newborn infants have a preference for complex stimuli over plain stimuli  but they ALSO PREFER FACES over scrambled control stimuli  unlearned bias to attend to faces  but this will lead to lots of experience with faces  expertise with faces develops as a result of both core knowledge and experience together o ex: unlearned predisposition for fear of heights triggered by environmental cues  children‟s actions on the world can be inputs that trigger new abilities: case of locomotion and visual cliff  infants with no locomotion experience cross to deep side  infants who have locomotion experience do not cross  suggests experience with locomotion triggers fear response to heights  relation to cultural variation, cultural similarities o according to approaches emphasizing environment, we should see large variations in developmental patterns/outcomes when cultures differ a lot o core knowledge approaches suggest that there will be underlying similarities o we often see variation alongside underlying similarity  1. VARIATION across cultures in amount of separation anxiety  2. SIMILARITY in the pattern of emergence, peak and decline across age  relation to goals of child developmental research o early detection of (and intervention for) atypical developmental pathways  ex: Autism spectrum diagnosis o widespread belief in idea that what happens early in life causes later outcomes o helping children to learn effectively (while remaining an effective consumer of research)  Lecture 3 – Theories and Methods of Developmental Psych (Piaget‟s Theory) 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Piaget‟s stage theory  a theory where the balance favors the environment  Not completely blank slate, but blank-ish: very little early knowledge/structure… only very basic GENERAL learning mechanisms  “constructivist”… child plays an active role in achieving developmental outcomes o kids constructing own knowledge, like scientists constructing own knowledge through observation and experimentation (child as scientist metaphor)  added idea  stage like discontinuities in development  NEW THEME  continuous versus discontinuous (stage-like) development o Pine tree: developmental continuity (gradual; smooth curve) o Butterfly: developmental discontinuity (not smooth curve; stage-like) o Conservation of liquid quantity  Silly putty, water in glasses, counting beads (same amount, but in different form/volume/length)  Sometimes called centration error  Centering in on ONE aspect of the visual, and ignoring the other  Note on methods  describing developmental change  Cross sectional vs. longitudinal o Cross sectional  Compare a group of 3 year olds to a different group of 5 year olds  Advantages  Quicker and easier  Avoid subject loss/repeat testing  Disadvantages  Uninformative about individual differences in pattern of development  Cohort (group) effects  something that might effect all of the kids in a particular classroom, but not in the other classroom  Example o 2010  3 year old performance = 4 year old performance o COHORT EFFECT  3 year old group (only) had access to “reading for toddlers” o 2009  started reading = started reading o 2008  “reading for toddlers” introduced for 2 year olds o 2007  3 year olds born o 2006  4 year olds born o Longitudinal  Compare a group of 3 year olds to the same kids 2 years later  Advantages  Reveals individual patterns of change  Avoids cohort effects  Disadvantages  Time consuming and expensive  Subject loss and survivorship effects (if time frame = too long)  Repeat testing  Subject loss/repeat testing o Longitudinal studies require participants to stick around for entire study o Inevitably, not all participants will stay in sample until the end… the longer the study and/or larger the number of measurement points, the more subject loss o Problem occurs if subject loss IS NOT RANDOM  When assessing development: the scale of observation matters o Close scrutiny of transition points matters  Answer that are not easily placed at one stage or another  Slide example  Height from 8-18 years (continuous) LOOKS SIMILAR ON GRAPH TO height from 80-220 days (discontinuous)  Example: conservation of numbers  4.5 year old said they were a little different because FARTHER APART, but he didn‟t know if they had same number or not  microgenetic designs o once a basic developmental pattern is shown, one can focus on change points to learn about mechanisms of change; researchers sometimes use “microgenetic designs” for this o involves many repeated measurements of an ability over a short period of time (every day for two weeks, every week for three months, etc.) o change observed while it is happening over the course of the experiment itself in some cases  example: ball in tube; 3 trials from last one, child eliminated middle wrong answer  still tried initially wrong place, skipped MIDDLE wrong place, went to right place under tube  Piaget‟s Theory  claimed that development was discontinuous: STAGES of general intellectual development  In stage theories, the ORDER of stage progression is more important than the exact age at which changes occur  If there is skipping or regression of stages, this would be stronger evidence against stage theories  Stages o 1. Sensori-motor (0-2 years)  very little knowledge at birth (blank-ish slate)  some perceptual abilities  reflexes (grasping, sucking, etc.)  basic and GENERAL learning mechanisms which construct more complex abilities and gradually more logical general thinking processes; domain general approach  early sensory and motor schemes are coordinated to achieve the ability to re-present  marked by successes at  understanding “object permanence”  that objects are independently existing entities not dependent on the child‟s contact with them o 2. Pre-operational thought (2-7 years)  first understanding of symbolic thought (things standing for other things)  failures in the construction of LOGICAL operations (hence, pre-operational) shown by:  centration  (focusing on one aspect of a problem) in conservation task  errors in understanding scale (focus on action while ignoring size of target object)  mini cars, mini slides, etc.  egocentrism in perspective taking task  taking own perspective  2 sides of table, child supposed to say what the experimenter can see on her side of table… only older kid can o 3. Concrete operational stage (7-12 years)  first success at tasks involving logical operations  limited to contexts in which the child has experience… abstract or hypothetical situations lead to failure  combination problem (how many combinations are there of a set of elements?)  children at this stage reason logically about objects and events, within their concrete experience, which limits their answers o sandwich example  deduction problem  child rejects rules that go against concrete experience, and generates a conclusion and explanation based on that experience  glass/feather example  younger child  if you hit a glass with a hammer/if you hit a glass with a feather… child knew that a feather wouldn‟t break the glass, so he answered that way too  older child  went with the rule… feather broke the glass o Formal Operational Stage (7-12 years)  can reason about abstract/hypothetical situations  Sandwiches example  Glass/feather example Lecture 4 – Cognition in Infancy (Piaget and the knowledge of the physical world) 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Focus on some specific developmental methods… since we don‟t have a baby translator, how can we measure what very young infants might know?  Observe them o Exploring the world  Requires that infants are crawling  Can be used to study the development of knowledge related to exploration/locomotion itself  Recall visual cliff (studies fear of heights)  Example  we see how knowledge of safe and risky ground does not generalize when the baby learns new modes of locomotion  Don‟t understand how large the gap is; risky vs. safe decisions crawling for a toy o Reaching for things (manual search)  Another technique relies on infants developing capacity to reach and search for objects  This method was the cornerstone of Piaget’s investigations into early knowledge about objects  Giraffe disappearing underneath cloth  Baby has no idea that it‟s still there… goes about business thinking it just vanished into thin air  Piaget asked when children first start to understand basic facts about the objects in the world around them  The object concept  Object permanence  objects continue to exist, even when unobserved  Retention of physical properties  objects retain their solidity, texture, size, etc.  Retention of spatial properties  inanimate objects tend to remain in their locations  Piaget‟s evidence for gradual construction of st object concept over 1 year  Stage 1 (0-1 month)  passive  Stage 2 (1-3 month)  no search; look away when object is hidden  * Stage 3 (3-8 month)  reach for partially hidden object; no reaching for fully hidden object*  * Stage 4 (8-12 month)  searches for hidden object; A not B error * o example: little baby in pink dress  correctly searched for object at location A… when hidden in location B, still searched at location A  Piaget‟s interpretation  Failure to search for hidden objects before 8 mo. was because infants thought the object was no longer there; did not understand object is a permanent entity o Infants had not separated the existence of the object from their OWN PERCEPTION OF IT  A not B error between 8-12 months was because infants thought the object can be re-created by their reaching for it o Infants had not separated the existence of the objet from THEIR ACTIONS ON IT  Challenging Piaget‟s interpretation_-> hints from infants ATTENTION during search  After a sequence of correct searches at A, baby clearly watches object hidden at B o V  Maintains attention on B during hiding o V  Even during the act of searching A o Attending to things  Even less demanding than reaching  Different measures are available:  What do infants prefer to look at?  preference (recall tracking of faces experiment)  Preference  what will infants look at longer/select for viewing? o Can be established if infants look longer, on average, at one kind of stimulus than another o OR o By giving infants a choice and seeing which stimulus they will look more in a given time period  But if no preference, can infants still discriminate between the stimuli?  Habituation o If infants don‟t show a preference, it might be because either  They can discriminate the stimuli but have no preference  They cannot tell the stimuli apart o We can use habituation to tell which… which involves repeatedly showing an infant the same thing until they are bored  When we change the stimulus? o Ex: if eat apple every day for a month, banana would seem to be the best food in the world  Do infants have expectations about the way the world works? Show them things that don‟t conform: violation of expectation  Using violation of expectation (with habituation) to test infants‟ concepts of hidden objects o Baby shown a ramp and a track o Screen lifted to show nothing hiding on the track o Screen lowered again o Car rolls down ramp, along track, behind ramp, and appears from other side o Repeat until baby bored  Test phase: “possible event” vs. test phase: “impossible event” o Critical difference: placement of box behind or on track  leads to events being seen as possible or impossible o Baby stares longer at the “impossible event”  Interim summary  These results demonstrate that infants have object concept long before claimed by Piaget  Habituation and violation of expectation can be used as windows into a vast array oh physical and other knowledge in infancy  For example: demonstrations of knowledge about motion across space and time  Video  2 minnie dolls vs. 1 minnie doll  Infants appear to start out with a core knowledge of certain principles that govern the physical world  But this knowledge is not complete adult knowledge. Gradually elaborate what they know around this core – learning about other rules as they interact with and experience the world  Core knowledge = contact involved  Elaborated knowledge = type of contact, amount of contact, etc.  Video example   By 3 months, babies know that unsupported objects should fall  Slightly older babies WEREN‟T SURPRISED that unsupported objects didn‟t fall o Made conclusion that FINGER ATTACHMENT kept it afloat o When finger wasn‟t attached, baby WAS SURPRISED  Expectations about the way things work Lecture 5 – Language Development Pt. I 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Logistics th  Midterm  Tuesday, January 29  Review sheet posted end of today  Big pink parscore sheet  Extended office hours o Normal Thursday o T.A. normal Monday o Extended  Tuesday 10:15-12:15  Extra reading online  Finishing up objects  Core/adult knowledge o Infants appear to start out with a core knowledge of certain principles that govern the physical world o But this knowledge is not complete adult knowledge; gradually elaborate what they know around this core – learning about other rules as they interact with and experience the world o Core knowledge = contact involved o Elaborated knowledge = type of contact, amount of contact, etc. o Diagrams:  Initial concept: contact/no contact (3 months)  Variable: type of contact (5 months)  Variable: amount of contact (6.5 months)  Variable: shape of the box (12.5 months)  If infants know so much about objects, why can‟t they find them? o These abilities are revealed in visual attention tasks, but not in reaching tasks (ex: manual search)  Demands of reaching tasks = higher  Distinction between competence (concept we are interested in) and performance (others things measured by task)  Tasks with higher demands might be failed (performance) when easier tasks reveal knowledge (competence)  Looking tasks (magic tricks) = easier  Reaching tasks = more difficult  must know where object is, but can fail to reach/grab/lift the object  Memory, attention, obvious over-learned (but wrong) actions/knowledge  Video   older child (2/3 years) familiarized with watching ball fall behind plank of wood  shelf moved  ball fell into cup on top of blank, not cup below plank… but thought it would be in BOTTOM cup  language  characteristics of language o generative and creative o infinite numbers of thoughts can be expressed by combining a finite number of elements via a set of hierarchical rules  can decode sentences because you know what the words mean o flexibility comes at the price of complexity  early theories favored “blank slate” learning o B.F. Skinner (verbal behavior)  Blank slate (+ learning mechanism of “association”)  Word-like babbling reinforced  Babbling becomes words  Words reinforced  Words become sentences, etc.  Example:  Parents reinforce when utterances sound more and more like real words  Gradual shaping of response  Reward primitive sentences, then more elaborate sentences, then even more elaborate sentences, etc.  B.F. Skinner  Pigeons get rewarded/training complicated behaviors  Argued human language is a complex, trained set of habitual responses  More modern learning theories o Modern versions where the starting slate has a more elaborate set of general learning processes  Imitation of adult speakers  Memorization of words and then sentences  Such that no “explicit reinforcement is necessary o Evidence against the “blank slate” and its elaborated versions  But still… too many things to say!  Novel utterances (never overheard, imitated)  “allgone cookie”  “it broked”  creation of new language structures according to rules (cannot be based on learning from direct experience)  must know something about the rules in order to create these utterances  ex  this is a wug (testing plural)  kids were able to produce correct plural (without concrete knowledge of word “wugs”… just rules) o led to first “core knowledge” theories for language development  Chomsky argued that all children have a Language Acquisition Device (LAD)  Domain-specific  for learning language only… not general purpose (just language, not objects or spatial, etc.)  Built in rules to get learning off the ground  Built in pattern of development  Universal pattern of development  consistent with core biological basis for language learning  Every human culture has at least one language  Same stage-like pattern of development seen in all human cultures  Cultures differ in their practices with respect to language use with young children  Suggests some biological program guides language acquisition  Diagrams   Babble = 9 months  1 word = 12 months  2 words = 18 months  complex grammar = 36 months  ages are approximate  wide variation  order is fixed  no variation  language rule learning  evidence from over-application of rules o sometimes they apply rules “too much”  they over- generalize o Pinker and Alda  reminder of rules, arguments against “blank slate” theories, and demonstration of over-use of rules (video)  More arguments for adding –s, -ed, etc. to end of gibberish words  Not just memorizing words… make mistakes  Taking rules with verbs (like –ed) on irregular verbs  ex: draw/drew/drawed, etc.  Even with core knowledge, ENVIRONMENT still plays a critical role o The language you learn depends on what language you are exposed to o Language acquisition requires exposure to language o Timing of language exposure is critical  Evidence from “isolated” children (there‟s a window)  Genie  Discovered at age 13  Acquired words, but never able to make grammatical sentences  Isabelle  Escaped imprisonment at age 6 ½  Within 18 months, normal language for her age  Evidence from learning a 2 nd language  English grammar scores of immigrants to the US vs. their age ON ARRIVAL to the US  Children who arrived while they were still young perform as native speakers  Individuals who arrived when already older or when adults perform less well  Preparation for language learning o Diagram  ? (anything before 9 months)  Babble  9 months  1 word  12 months  2 words  18 months  complex grammar  36 months o precursors to language acquisition  METHODS: attention measures (preference, habituation) can be used in the auditory domain as well as the visual domain  Rate of sucking on pacifier is used as a measure of attentiveness/interest  Faster sucking rate = more interest  Infants prefer to listen to their native language  Newborn babies prefer to listen to a passage read in their native language over the same passage read by the same reader in a different language  Preference probably results from their hearing the rhythmic aspects of language prenatally  French vs. Russian  Native French… more interested in French version than Russian version (no post-natal experience with French… although native French)  Auditory sense = very well developed by 3 rd trimester of pregnancy  Younger infants discriminate all speech sounds; older infants tune in to their own language  Younger infants can hear the speech sound contrasts of ALL LANGUAGES  Older infants can hear speech contrasts only in their native language  Suggests that experience with speech sounds that are used in the native language are maintained at the expense of sounds that are not used/experienced  Video   Words that sound the same to English speakers, but sound/mean different things in different language (Native American language)  Infants telling the difference o Teach the baby to turn her head when the sound changes (toys coming on = reward for correct head turn) o Younger infant = recognizes change o Older infant = doesn‟t recognize change Lecture 6 – Language Development Pt. II Becoming a Language User 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Logistics  Exam 1  Tuesday  Review sheet posted on Gauchospace  Big pink parscore  Office hours o Michael  Monday 10-12 o Tamsin  Tuesday 10:15-12:15  Finishing up from last lecture  Younger infants discriminate all speech sounds; older infants tune in to their own language o Younger infants can hear the speech sound contracts of ALL LANGUAGES o Older infants can hear speech contrasts only in their native language o Suggests that experience with speech sounds that are used in the native language are maintained at the expense of sounds that are not used/experienced o Graph  6-8 months ~ 98% can discriminate b/w sounds  8-10 months ~ 68% can  10-12 months ~ 20% can  adults prepare infants for language learning  infant directed speech (aka: motherese) o exaggeration  higher voice  extreme changes in intonation  longer pauses  more repetitions o slower and clearer o exaggerated facial expressions o video  mixed intonation with +/- words  melody encouraging/- words  babies were confused and didn‟t know how to respond to the object  stages in language development  stages o 9 months  babble  about 8 to 12 months  speech sounds from native language  sounds comprised of consonant followed by vowel  ba-ba-ba-ba  ga-ga-ga-ga  etc.  issue: language and speech  is speech necessary for language?  Test case: deaf infants exposed to sign language babble manually  Study hearing children‟s hands (to filter out normal childhood gestures from deaf child‟s babbling with hands)  Deaf children babble too  language isn‟t reliant on speech o 12 months  1 word  about 12-13 months (first words… but variability in exact age)  first ~50 words are the same everywhere; mostly nouns  mom, dad, siblings, pets, common objects  very few function words (and, at, the, of, etc.)  problems with word learning by association: too many possible meanings  category  individual  parts of object  color/pattern  state of mind  solving the “gavagai” problem  children cannot be complete blank slates; they must have some initial assumptions about what words are likely to mean… but what assumptions? o Video  You‟re standing next to someone and you don‟t know their language  Rabbit walks by, and he said “gavagai!”  Does he mean rabbit, does he mean fur, ears? Etc.  Whole object assumption o Assume word is a label for a whole object  Mutual exclusivity assumption o Assume that objects have only ONE label/name o If child knows name for one object, then a novel name must refer to the other unfamiliar object present o Two objects on lap… one is limick… other object OBVIOUSLY has to be spud  Nonverbal cues from knowledgeable speakers o Eye gaze  toddlers will learn a name for a hidden object based on where a person is looking when they name a word o Emotional cues  toddlers can track and remember emotional displays that signal word meaning o 18 months  2 words (telegraphic speech)  18-24 months  simple sentences  abbreviated (still no function words)  ex: “hurt knee”; “daddy sleep”  even though infants aren‟t producing complex sentences, they are sensitive to grammar (word ordering)  cross modal video (selective looking method)  lip movements and speech sounds; combine what you hear with what you see (ahh/eee)  cookie monster is tickling big bird/big bird is tickling cookie monster (must choose video to watch/picture to look at based on subject/verb position of sentence)  if you make a list of the words in the sentence, they‟re identical… task only possible by paying attention to order of words (grammatical attention) o 36 months  complex grammar  3 words and beyond  moving beyond the 2 word stage is largely a matter of incorporating gradually more function words to fill out and arranging words into more complex sentences, using more clauses, etc.  “eat cookie” to “I eating cookies” to “I am coming over there to eat your cookies”  large individual differences in progression from 2- word state to more complex speech  note: ORDER fixed, so still consistent with stage development Lecture 7 – Conceptual Development Children‟s understanding of the social world 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  everyday mind-reading  example from The Princess Bride o Vizzini  Does not know both cups contain iocaine powder  Wants to avoid the poison cup  Thinks (falsely) Wesley only poisoned his own cup  Pretends to see something behind Wesley o Wesley  Did not see (therefore does not know) Vizzini switched the cups  Thinks (correctly) that Vizzini does not know that both cups are poisoned  Does not care to which cup he drinks from  Social interactions are contingent  Infants engage in contingent imitation of simple facial and hand gestures from birth (stick out tongue, open mouth, kissy face) o Shown in non-human primates too… hinting at the evolutionary origins of social abilities o Powerful tool for the acquisition of cultural knowledge  Video o Newborn baby girl o Newborn Rhesus monkey  Expectations that social partners reciprocate  Infants develop expectations that their social partners will follow turn taking contingencies… and notice if these expectations are not met  For example o Still face procedure (in attempts to achieve joint attention)  Baby quickly picks up on fact mother isn‟t responding  Baby does everything in power to get mother to respond  When mom doesn‟t respond… has a BF  “the actual translation of that high pitched screech is, „what the fuck?!”‟ o joint attention behaviors  establishing WITH another person rd  joint attention on a 3 thing in the world (pointing at an object); moving eyes, moving head, etc.  older children turn head with experimenter… younger children don‟t (9-12 months gains ability to follow someone else‟s gaze)  understanding goals and intentions  key element for showing simple mindreading is for infants to show that they distinguish the mental state (non-observable) from outcomes/reality (observable)  one example  children‟s early (9 month) ability to distinguish between two different mental state reasons for the same outcome o clumsy and dropping VS. deliberately keeping from child (unwilling VS. unable) o unable  isn‟t angry, just gets bored o unwilling  protests, gets angry, vocalizes anger, etc.  later (~18 months), understanding desires from non-verbal cues, even when differ from the infant‟s own o baby shows preference for cracker o experimenter shows preference for broccoli o experimenter asks for baby to choose food for him  picks broccoli  children also imitate people‟s intentions (15-18 months) o imitation methods can be used to study understanding of goals/intentions; NOTE: importance of the manner of action not just the outcome  cute little girl  flip and smush cup; pull out tube  manner of the action  little boy hula hooping without the hoop… has the action, but can‟t produce the ultimate goal o by 18 months, imitate completed actions and intended actions even when they do not see the outcome o don’t imitate similar motions done by a machine  pull out/popping tube  ~18 months  understanding of pretense o in functional play, objects and actions related to them are produced (making a toy truck to truck-like things) o in pretend play, the pretended state (phone) doesn‟t match the real state of the world (banana)  child understands that it‟s an act of pretense  child doesn‟t get confused… knows mom is pretending o older children can create sophisticated imaginary words, building on real world knowledge including imaginary friends  tested same kids 6 months later and asked same questions about imaginary friends  found CONSISTENCY  descriptions not made up, age of growth, size, etc. make sense with time lapsed  but in the ace of these successes there is a notable failure o until ~4 years, fail to get the answer right when asked about beliefs that differ from their own o evidence comes from false belief tasks (another person can think things about the world that are different/aren‟t true)  sally-anne task  description  Kenny has a marble  Kenny has some chores, so he leaves it in a bag  Cartman takes the marble from the bag and puts it in the box  Kenny is looking for the marble now… where will he look?  Experiment/results  Children before age 4 answer “box”…  Children after age 4 answer “bag”…  smarties task  description  what do you think is in here?  Look! (it‟s a pencil)  When you first saw this before we took the lid off o What did YOU think was inside?  answer “pencil” o What will SAM think is inside when I show him?  “pencils” o Explaining the shift in false belief reasoning: focus on mechanism of change  Theory 1: theory of mind (competence changes)  Discontinuous, conceptual change  Based on learning from experiences with false beliefs, kids “get it” and begin to understand beliefs can be false  Discontinuity in “theory of mind” concepts  2 years  just understanding desire  3 years  new concept: learned via interaction with environment  4 years  understanding belief and desire  theory 2: theory of mind (competence) does NOT change, but PERFORMANCE does change  ability to express conceptual knowledge changes  kids lack the performance skills to show what they know about beliefs  but what demands are there Conceptual Development Pt. III Children‟s Understanding of the Natural World 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Review sheet posted online (MIDTERM TUESDAY)  Finishing up last lecture  Explaining the shift in false belief reasoning o Focus on mechanism of change  Theory 1: “theory of Mind” competence changes  Discontinuous, conceptual change  One day, based on learning from experiences with false beliefs, kids “get it” and begin to understand beliefs can be false  Theory 2: “theory of mind” competence does NOT change, performance DOES  Ability to express conceptual knowledge changes  Kids lack the performance skills to show what they know about beliefs o Obvious (but wrong) responses must be inhibited:  Smarties  Obvious wrong response (reality)  pencils  Correct response  smarties  Sally-Anne  Obvious wrong response (reality)  box  Correct response  basket  This skill is part of a set of self control skills called executive functions, which develop across the preschool period and beyond  Younger children have a hard time with working memory, rule switching, and inhibiting obvious wrong answers  Inhibiting obvious wrong answers (video)  Hear bell, lift glass, eat m&m  Experimenter waits longer to ring bell  child had to resist… takes more effort to resist o Testing the theories: make the wrong answer less obvious  The “look first” procedure  where was the marble in the beginning? Where is the marble now? Where will Sally look FIRST for her marble?  Results of look first procedures support the performance theory  3 year old children do much better when wrong answer is less obvious  if there was a conceptual competence problem, the look first procedure should make no difference  recall: 3 year old seems to answer with where Sally should go  4 year old corrects his pointing gesture to succeed at the task o infants during the 2 ndyear of life show signs of understanding belief in visual attention tasks  infants, typically developing children, and adults look toward empty location before the agents come back and searches  false belief  story events (11-13 seconds)  agent hides object in one location  agent departs and does not see object move  anticipation window (4 seconds)  agent returns  fixation  response  over extension of children‟s understand of social world to the natural world…  Piaget‟s phenomenon of “childhood animism revealed in clinical interviews about living and non-living things o For example, the Sun is treated as an animate agent: it moves around and “follows us” because it wants to keep us warm, etc.  More recent demonstrations that children extend psychological explanations to some aspects of the natural world (ex: functions and purposes) o For example “mountains are pointy so that animals can scratch their backs” o Video  Open ended question  Why was the first bird put on this earth?  Why was the first river put on this earth?  Monkey?  Purpose based explanations  partly evidence for theory… (maybe it‟s just easier to generate though?)  Other people‟s guesses… do they make sense?  Birds = to eat worms and insects OR animal on ground developed wings and began to fly  NOTE  tend to choose purpose based answers as opposed to more mechanism based answers  Concepts of life and death based on behavior/motion?  Piagetian style interview techniques reveal children have life and death concepts that are not framed in terms of biological processes (and their breakdown) until about age 7-8… prior to that: o Alive  concept that amalgamates notions of “present”, moving, awake, etc. o Death  understood by analogy to non motion, sleep or departure  Younger infants have biology relevant expectations based on judgments of animacy/agency o Infants have expectations about what will happen based on whether an entity is animate or inanimate o Ex: still face procedure o Ex: person pulling tube apart VS. machine pulling tube apart o Next class, we‟ll look at what information they use to make this distinction, and how it can help explain a human tendency to see certain patterns when none are there  Prioritized attention to animates over non animates: evidence from “change blindness” o There is an advantage for adults at detecting changes to targets that are people or animals in change detection tasks o This advantage extends to young children (3-6 year olds) o Change blindness phenomenon video   Subject comes up to counter…  First person gives them consent form and ducks under desk to put it away… new person pops up and continues conversation  People often miss large changes of visual world from one view to the next o Experiment/demonstration  Flash between two images  Second image… something is different  Generally, people are rather slow at sensing changes EVEN WHEN the changing thing = central phenomenon  Commonsense essentialism o 2 year olds attribute properties based on similarity when there is NO CATEGORY LABEL o when category label (bird) is used, property attribution is based on label (not similarity) o ex: cat… can change color, fur, name, etc. BUT still meows and likes milk o video example   Ted Talk  Forged painting, treason, Nazi, etc.  Essentialist  response conditioned on beliefs of what they really are, what their hidden nature is, where they came from, what they‟re made of, etc. Lecture 9 – The Supernatural World 1/8/2013 1:18:00 PM  Logistics  Exam 2 – Tuesday  Updated review sheet on Gauchospace  Big pink parscore  Office hours o Monday 10-12 (T.A.) o Tuesday (extended hours): 10:15 – 12:15 (Prof.) o USE FORUM TOO  The supernatural world  Opening slide o Our minds are “hyperactive” at detecting agency… we “anthromorphize” non-human entities and readily attribute events to invisible agents o We separate the mental form the physical… we are commonsense “dualists”… link to beliefs in spirits/ghosts and the afterlife o We assume things have hidden unchanging essences that define what kind of thing they are; may be related to beliefs in the soul, and explain treatment of some objects as “special”  1. Overextending concepts of agency to non animate things (anthromorphism) o Anthromorphism  seeing some non human thing as having human qualities; our tendency to attribute goals, beliefs, and desires to entities which do not literally have them  Ex: seeing faces in clouds, etc. o Idea that this might stem from a natural human tendency for the quick and rapid detection of animacy and agency… and advantage for “false alarms” over “misses” o Cues to agency detection  Infants separate the animate from inanimate worlds; evidence suggests that this is based on attending to many different kinds of cues  Infants will engage in social behaviors with nonhuman entities so long as they display some of these features  Ex: what kinds of nonhuman things can elicit gaze following?  Study testing for effect of  Morphological features (ex: faces)  Patterns of contingent interaction on gaze following  Contingency/face cues to social agency in 12 month olds  Infants shown novel object  Varied on two dimensions  Face or no face  Talked to baby in beeps or not  Infants followed object‟s gaze if the entity had a face OR if it interacted with them, but not if it did neither o Combine this with the notion that it‟s better to false alarm than to miss  Recall lower errors for changes to animals and people in change blindness… our minds (and those other species) are geared toward detecting animates instead of missing them  Ex: dog hunting coyote  Our detection is designed to be triggered very easily, which might explain our tendency to see faces in the clouds… and everywhere else (evolutionary… more cost efficient to be safe and not reach… see the spider instead of the twigs)  Ex: faces in peppers; spider vs. twigs in tree; surprised face in coffee o Detecting further meaning in perceived patterns  Management of errors (avoiding misses) suggests we will see animacy where it does not exist  We may also, based on strongly held cultural beliefs, see further meaning within that detected pattern  Ex: grilled cheesus; “nun bun”  Video  British sketch comedy  “there is no god” in seeds of Watermelon  2. Are we commonsense “dualists”? o opening slide  dualism  the idea that the mind/soul is separate from the body  idea has been discussed ever since the time of the philosopher Descartes… who proposed the idea that we might doubt the existence of anything in the outside world, but that we could not doubt the existence of our own minds  concluded that minds and bodies must therefore be separate things  mind fuck  are we really in the world, or is this a fake world like the matrix?  “I think therefore I am”  because it is me that‟s being deceived… I‟m thinking… I exist o evidence for dualism in children  experiment using a “magic duplicating box”  children shown an object placed in one box, the box is closed, lights flash, and then boxes opened to reveal a copy  hamster  physical o has a blue heart o has spongy bones  mental o likes to eat poached eggs o knows how to play hide and seek  children assume that the
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