Religious Studies 7 Lecture Notes.docx

88 Pages
Unlock Document

University of California - Santa Barbara
Religious Studies
RG ST 151A

Lecture 1 - Introduction 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Materials  Textbook: Catherine L. Albanese  Reader: Grafikart (6550 Pardall Rd.) o Contains the syllabus o Read readings BEFORE class  I>clicker o Register at  GauchoSpace  Kristy’s office hours: Monday and Friday 3:00-4:00 in HSSB 3084  Syllabus  5% lecture participation (i>clicker)  15% section  25% midterm (scantron and essay)  20% final (scantron and short answer)  35% paper o family religious history paper  family member’s religious history  American history of religion  Common course themes  For Wednesday  Read textbook pp. 1-15  Bring i>clicker What Counts as Religion in America? 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Elephant story  Blind men feeling an elephant  all felt different parts of the elephant  Compared to American religion: different parts/aspects of American religion, and everyone sees/feels/approaches religions differently  Religions and boundaries  Types of religious boundaries?  life cycle/temporal boundaries, geographical/territorial, physical (shaking hands, eating food, etc.), authority (priest, rabbi, etc.), space boundaries (seats vs. where authority stands/sits), belief o Ordinary religion: culture, traditions o Extraordinary religion: outside of normal boundaries, transcending to reach something divine (God, reincarnation)  Religious systems: 4 C’s  Creeds: beliefs, sacred stories, explanations about life, answer ?’s  Codes: rules, guidelines for behavior  Cultuses: rituals  Communities: people who partake in the same religious system  Religious symbols  Can range from condensed to diffused  Ex: cross, dove (holy spirit), sunset (God’s presence, peace, etc.) Condensed -------------------- diffused  Religion: a system of symbols (creed, code, cultus) by means of which people (community) locate themselves in the world with reference to both ordinary and extraordinary powers, meanings, and values  narratives of the textbook  manyness: “original cast” o native americans o jews o Christians o African americans o Roman catholics o English protestants  manyness: newmade religions o Mormon o Christian science o Adventist, jehovah’s witnesses o Shaker, Oneida, branch davidian o Spiritualism, theosophy, new thought  manyness: expansion and contraction o accepting religions vs. consolidating one religion o eastern orthodoxy o islam o Hinduism o Buddhism o New age and new spirituality o Fundamentalist and evangelical  oneness o something that unites us in regards to America o public Protestantism o civil religion – national, patriotic religion  ex: visiting sacred memorials in American history o cultural religion – sports, technology, nature, etc. Lecture 3 – Native American Religions 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  mascots and permission  accuracy vs. parody  other races seen?  can alter the “face” of the mascot/symbol  What was most sacred to the Hopi?  Buffalo  Corn  Pipe  Is the reader article by Robert Allen Warrior a  Primary source (first-hand accounts)  Secondary source (writer talks to people that had first-hand accounts)  Both  Neither  Does Warrior approve of the behavior of the Hebrew God?  Yes  Somewhat  No  Native American diversity  500 different societies o shaped by the land/geographical region o oral traditions  6 language groups o wide range – equivalent to difference such as Russian vs. Korean  patrilineal or matrilineal (male vs. female priority/dominance) o matrilineal ex: Navaho (New Mexico)  Common figures in religion  Sacred community o Animals o Spirits o Sacred beings  Shamans – religious specialist; certain people chosen in each community to be shamans  healing, communication with animals and spirits, etc.  Trickster figures – ex: coyote; animals that have different stories; responsible for transformation in a certain community’s history (can create order vs. chaos, etc.)  Common beliefs and practices  Dreams and visions o Visions to become shamans o To heal people  Correspondence o Things correspond to a larger reality o Rituals: ritual with specific herb corresponds to a specific spirit/specific part of body  Cyclical time (instead of linear) o Measured according to hunting cycles, harvest cycles, other rhythms besides 24 hr. time o Rhythms and circles  Rituals o Cyclical time showed up in rituals o Different rituals for different parts of year/life cycles  Healing o Important to rituals o Medicine men used nature to correspond to specific healing o Healing spirit, bodily ailments, relationships  General work roles  Women: gathering, harvesting, hunting small game, preparation of food  Men: hunting large game, warriors  Roles affected by: o Matrilineal or patrilineal o Age, class, marriage o Menstrual cycles  3rd and 4th graders  male berdache (born male, takes female role) o women’s roles o male lovers or husbands  female berdache (born female, takes male role) o men’s roles o female lovers or wives  religious aspects o determined by shaman o can be visioned by the individual his/herself  European contact  Trade and war o Guns o Food o Spices  Disease o Native Americans weren’t equipped to handle disease brought by Europeans o Population drop  Took land o Indian removal (Trail of Tears; wanted room for European travelers) o Used to be general territorial boundaries, but no tangible boundaries to say this is A and this is B (Europe wanted tangible boundaries)  Attempts to “civilize” natives o Settlement: set up villages/boundaries/houses in a European way o Gender: women were viewed as abused because they were out working in fields (even though women working in fields was okay in native American tradition)  Europeans wanted to give more European gender norms  Didn’t approve of berdache o Religion: religion wasn’t separated from culture  Europeans saw them as blank slate, even though N.A. did have religion  Christian conversions  Protestant “praying town”  John Eliot’s Bible translation (for N.A. reading in their perspective languages)  Kateri Tekakwitha th  17 century Mohawk Catholic  catholic convert; spirit still looked up to in N.A. Catholics as hope; up for sainthood in Catholic church today  California mission system  New religious movements  Ghost dance o Wovoka: prophet that started ghost dance in current form o Ritual that transformed: said if we dance at a certain way at a certain time we can restore our past and ancestors (used in protest of European invasion)  Wounded Knee Massacre (wore ghost dance shirts which they thought shielded them from European bullets)  Peyote way o Native American church o Try to contact divine through hallucinogenic properties of peyote Native American Religions cont./Judaism 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM Native American Religions (Continued)  Legal limits of “religious freedom”  Oregon vs. smith o What if a religious substance is illegal? o Ex: Peyote  “G-O Road” case o What if a sacred site is on public land? o Ex: CA wanted a highway to go through different cities, yet it would cross through native religious territory  Reclaiming Traditions  Graves protection and repatriation act (NAGPRA) o Some groups wanted grave items/skeletons to be protected from development o Others wanted grave items/skeleton items to be returned to native groups  National museum of the American Indian o Collaboration of native groups o Make own little museums to reclaim tradition/educate non- natives  Indian Rights Activism o Mascot example   Judaism   Which group was the latest to immigrate to America?  Dutch jews from brazil  Eastern European jews  German ashkenazic jews  Sephardic jews  Which of the major branches of Judaism was formed in America?  Orthodox  Conservative  Reform  Judaism and Christianity: Which is false?  Both worship the God of Abraham  They share a common sacred text  They share an understanding of sin  Both have a concept of a messiah  Both use prayer to communicate with god  Jewish religion  Monotheism o Only one god  Covenant o Legal contract with god to follow THE god and only that god  Jewish law o Certain rules that correspond to the covenant (how to maintain our end of covenant with god)  Torah o First 5 books of Hebrew bible (old testament)  Rabbi o Religious leader  Synagogue o Religious building/place of worship  Traditional jewish practices  Dietary laws (Kosher laws) o No pork or shellfish o No milk and meat together o Cleanliness o How food is prepared: dishes, sinks, etc.  Observe Sabbath o Friday evening – Saturday evening  Annual ceremonial cycle  Rituals o Weddings o Bar/bat mitzvah  Forms of Judaism  Orthodox o Most conservative o 613 laws  reform (brought to U.S. from Germany) o adaptions to modernity o first reform synagogue in U.S. = Ohio  conservative (created in the U.S.) o “middle of the road” approach to change  European Jews  Ghettos o Walls around Jewish areas of city o Segregation o Holocaust  Pogroms o Organized discrimination against Jews o Ex: taxed heavily, violence, etc. (Christians  Jews)  Emancipation in enlightenment o Certain countries affected by enlightenment  finally allowed Jews equal treatment/opportunity on public level  Jewish reform movement o Germany o Attempt to adapt Judaism to modernity o No longer consider all 613 orthodox laws applicable to modern day  Jewish peoplehood  Common history o Hebrew bible o Come from Europe (ancestry)  Mutual suffering o Discrimination o Ghettos  Chosenness o Chosen by god for covenant  Ritual o Jewish rituals = remember covenant  Ethnicity o Ethnicity or religion? Big debate, variations of both  Early Jewish immigrants (1654-1820)  Dutch Jews from brazil  Sephardic Jews from Iberian peninsula  Ashkenazic jews from Germany (reform Judaism)  Growth of Judaism  Before 1820: ~5000 Jews in America  1820’s-1840’s: Germans (reform)  1880’s: eastern Europeans (orthodox)  WWII: Holocaust survivors  Now: ~1.3% of U.S. (4 million)  Orthodox Judaism in America  Kosher foods  Modest dress  Rabbis and scholars in high esteem  Male minyan: male quorum necessary to hold service o Women exempt from time-bound mitzvot o Mehitzah separates genders  Mitzvot for Women o Nerot: lighting Sabbath candles o Challah: sacred portion of bread o Niddah: purity rituals (around menstruation) o Other roles: wives and mothers, preserve traditions in home, kosher cooking  Reform Judaism in America  Isaac Mayer Wise o Reciprocal marriages and divorces  Mixed congregations o Didn’t use mehitzah  Bat mitzvah  Female rabbis  LGBTQ synagogues  Conservative Judaism  1880’s American jewish context  eastern European leadership  emphasis on jewish ethnicity  “trefa banquet” o at Hebrew union college o hired caterer that served 4 foods that weren’t kosher  crab, clam, shrimp, frog leg The Presence of Roman Catholicism 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  How many major difference between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism can you name? (opinion/general knowledge)  None  1  2  3  4 or more  Earliest Catholics came to North America under the flag of which country?  Spain  France  England  How many official sacraments does Catholicism recognize?  5  7  9  10  14  Which is not the name of one of the 7 catholic sacraments?  Baptism  Anointing of the sick  Penance  Conversion  Holy orders  Sacramentalism  Baptism o Official welcoming of baby into the “community of the saints” o Holy water, father son holy spirit  Penance (reconciliation) o Confession of sins to a priest  Eucharist (Communion) rd o Usually 3 grade o Transubstantiation  Congest Eucharist (bread and wine = body and blood of Christ)  Confirmation o Celebrating spiritual maturity of a catholic o Confirmation classes in high school o Pick a saint’s name (becomes one of your middle names)  Holy orders o Become a monk/nun/sister  Matrimony o Cannot both dedicate to matrimony and holy order  Anointing of the sick o On death bed/very sick o Holy, blessed oil serves like penance (extra protection against going to hell)  Early Missions  Spanish o 1492 Columbus o 1500’s in Florida and southwest o 1700’s in California (biggest mission plan)  French o 1500’s in Canada  Franciscans and Jesuits  Learned native languages and intermarried  English Colonies  Exclusion of catholic minority o No voting rights o Religious tests for public office  Exceptions: o Maryland and Lord Baltimore o Pennsylvania  Liturgical Cycle  Advent and Christmas  Ash Wednesday and Lent o Ash cross on forehead (can’t wipe off); marks beginning of lent o Lent: 40 days of giving up something; sacrifice  Holy Week o Palm Sunday – joyous celebration of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem o Holy Thursday – last supper, wash feet of people washing his disciple’s feet o Good Friday – only day of Catholic year not allowed to take communion at mass (no Eucharist) in anticipation of Easter o *Easter* – resurrection of Jesus three days after good Friday  Ascension and Pentecost o Ascension of Jesus into heaven o Pentecost – 10 days after ascension; gifts of holy spirit  Catholic Hierarchy  One catholic church o All churches not divided, one body of people no matter which church you belong to geographically  Pope o Infallible spiritual authority (speaking for Jesus) o Takes part in the UN  Male bishops and priests o Apostolic succession (all men because Jesus and apostles were men) o Celibacy (married to God; anything else would be a distraction)  Women Religious  Nuns or sisters  Vows o Dedicated to church for life o Vows of simplicity (live simply, poverty) o Celibacy  Adaptions to America o Non-cloistered (don’t live in convent like in Europe) o New services  Parochial schools  Schools to educate catholic children  Public schools mostly protestant  Books shaped by protestantism  Took on roles as teachers to make money to build cloisters  Lay Women  Baptism  Communion  Marriage  Altar girls o People who help the priest o Originally boys, in order to prepare to become priests  CCD teachers o Education for catholics o Junior high/high school; teaches catholic children what it means to be a catholic  Missionaries  Event coordinators  Paraliturgical Devotions  Benediction of the blessed sacrament o Focus on transformed Eucharist o Put into daily lives  Stations of the cross o Catholic parishes = 14 stations around church building o Different pictures showing different parts of Jesus o Leading up to Easter  Devotions to Mary o Rosary  Say the rosary  Prayer beads  Each bead represents a different prayer o Scapular  Brown, wool garment worn over shoulders  Protects someone (can’t die with it on your shoulders and be full of sin) o Local visions  Women and children have visions of Mary coming to them and speaking to them Roman Catholicism Continued 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Catholic ethics  Natural law o Sexuality  No artificial birth control allowed  Rhythm method allowed (sexual activity according to woman’s cycle/calendar)  Sin o Original, mortal, or venial  Original: people are born in a sinful state, and must work/ask grace to be good in the eyes of God  Mortal: ex – murder (harsh sins)  Venial: less harsh sins  Can repent by penance/confession o Remains of sin  When someone dies, they keep some remnants of their sins with them o Purgatory  The place people go to in order to work off sins before reaching heaven  Devotions to Saints  Prayers for intercession o St. Jude of Hopeless Causes o Looking to saints for help in times of need o Saints are mediators between humans and God  Canonization process o Kateri Tekakwitha  Native American Catholic woman who is up for canonization process o Process in which you become a saint  Must have large following during life/after death (community support)  Exemplary life (model of exemplary human behavior)  After death, must have performed miracle (ex: stigmata)  Can you articulate one of the main points of Orsi’s article?  Yes  Somewhat  No  Suffering and being born a cripple is a blessing because it gives you a better understanding of/relationship with God. Don’t resent your ailment, but embrace it.  The person relates to saints o Saint Margaret: deformed saint (didn’t get through canonization process) o Saint’s can be popular by the people and can cling to saints even if they aren’t official saints by the Catholic church  Which is the external condition of Catholicism in America?  Transubstantiation  Ethnicity  Sacramentalism  Pluralism  Hierarchy  Which is the largest group of 20 thcentury Catholic immigrants  Latino  Italian  German  English  French  American Catholicism  Ethnicity o Internal condition o Many in one church  Pluralism o External condition o One church among many o Anti-Catholicism  Catholic Immigration 1840’s-1850’s  Irish o Potato famine refugees o Dominated Catholic hierarchy (loyal to church, already spoke English)  German o Wanted national churches o Tension with the Irish  Catholic Immigration 1880’s-1920’s  Italians o Anticlerical o Preference for family over church  Polish o Wanted national churches o Black Madonna of Czestochowa th  20 century catholic immigration  Latino o Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban o Anticlerical o Virgin of Guadalupe o Encuentro movement  Recognition of Latino Catholicism  In past, underneath Irish hierarchy… movement wanted to recognize Latino traditions of Catholicism  19 thcentury adaptation to America  trusteeism o challenge priests and bishops o law = corporate ownership of church property (church not allowed to own its own property)  Americanism (wanting to mesh American culture with idea of Catholicism) o Modern culture and individualism o Testem benevolentiae (1899)  Against anyone against americanist heresy o “Phantom heresy”  no one owned up to it/spoke up against the pope on testem benevolentiae  Protestant Fears  Catholics were seen as suspicious o Superstitions o Authoritarian foreign leader  Political threat to America  Catholics aligned with really powerful, foreign leader o Obedience  Obedient to superiors = against American individualism o Voluntary poverty  Required of people who took holy orders  Against American capitalism which was building in the country o Celibacy  Against nature according to protestants  Seen as archaic element of religion o Secrecy of convents  Catholic church put monks and nuns in convents (not a lot of interaction)  Mysterious for protestants  Nativism and Anti-Catholicism  Nativism: referring to group of people who claim to be the original founders of a country, and believe new-coming groups don’t deserve that heritage (Anglo-Protestants)  War against nunneries o Maria Monk o Told priests abused nuns, sexual mysteries in convent, etc.) o Written by group of protestants trying to go against Catholicism  Nativist organizations o Know-nothings and KKK  Decline of anti-Catholicism o JFK elected President  20 thcentury official Catholicism  catholic missions o missionaries sent overseas  charismatic movement 1960’s and 1970’s o recognized power of holy spirit o speaking in tongues o Pentecostal elements worshiped  Vatican council II reforms o “todaying” the church  updating church to fit into the modern world o local languages o allowed Priest to face congregation o followed by Humanae Vitae  thought reversal of contraception beliefs would occur, yet the church remained conservative on issue Review and Protestantism Pt. 1 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Native American Review  Combination of ordinary and extraordinary o Ordinary: every day life, culture o Extraordinary: contact with the divine, outside of the ordinary o Hard to separate ordinary and extraordinary, because both correlate so well, blend together  Native American diversity o Over 550 different societies (very different cultures) o Shaped by regions, matrilineal vs. patrilineal, etc. o 6 major language groups  Indigenous rights activism o Native American activists (since 1960’s) o Worked for multiple causes  Mascot controversy: don’t want native Americans as mascots for sport teams, working for dignity of native American symbols, don’t want misuse of these symbols in sports related things  Native American graves: working to get property back from government (bodies, things from inside graves, etc.)  Things have been sitting in museums, and the native Americans want the property back  how reservations are run by the government; don’t want to be element of U.S. government  Judaism Review  Anti-Semitism o Starts in Europe  European Jews subject to discrimination laws  required to live in ghettos (worse conditions than rest of the city)  pogroms: blatant violence and hatred of Jews  holocaust  Jews discriminated against for religious background o America  1913 – Jew lynched (Leo Frank) Atlanta, Georgia  accused of being involved in banking conspiracies  Three branches o Reform  brought by Germans 1830’s o Orthodox  1880’s brought by Eastern Europeans o Conservative  born in America 1880’s  Approached change  Wanted to reform, but not as quickly and were more conservative in their beliefs of change  Catholicism Review  Ethnicity vs. Pluralism o Internal condition of Catholicism in America  Irish  German  Italian  Polish  Latino – 20’s century o External condition: pluralism  Freedom of religion in America  Catholicism had to change because there were so many options  Many churches in America = protestant, therefore Catholicism was a minority religion  Negative attitudes toward Catholicism  Paraliturgical Devotions o Parallel to liturgy = official rituals of Catholic church o Devotion to Mary, devotion to Saints, devotion to blessed sacrament  examples  Down outside of church American Protestant Origins  Which century did Protestant Reformation occur? o 14 th th o 15 o 16 th(early 1500’s) th o 17 o 18 th  “Justification through faith” describes the  sins justified in bible  salvation through trusting in God  principle of scripture alone  priesthood of all believers  Which was the main group to settle Massachusetts Bay?  Anglicans  Puritans  Catholics  Quakers  Arminians th  16 century reformation o protestant principles  scripture alone  only need paper Pope; just need Bible… not authority figure  justification through faith  given faith through God’s grace  priesthood of all believers  don’t have to choose radical separate path as priests did in Catholicism; any protestant can become an authoritative figure  communion of saints  joining community based on people that have followed principles  selective community (more so than Catholicism)  Protestant Reformers  Martin Luther o 1513  was a Catholic monk, and began questioning the church (was selling indulgences  getting money for telling people they’ll go to heaven) o decided there’s nothing he could do about state of soul  God either gave him grace or didn’t… but realized he was in fact saved o Ex-communicated from church, created own system  John Calvin o Ideas spread by printing press  Ideas spread across Europe o Theocracy in Geneva  Trying to build kingdom of God on earth  Lasted for 1.5 generations o Calvinism (influenced Americans)  Predestination  someone’s either predestined to heaven or predestined to hell before you’re born  TULIP  T: total depravity  Humans don’t necessarily deserve grace, and must rely on God to be saved  U: unlimited sovereignty of God  God has the ultimate ability to make decisions  God = unchecked  L: limited atonement  Jesus died on the cross for people’s sins  Only for select people (predestined to go to heaven)  I: irresistible grace  If God predestined you for salvation and offered you grace (ability to become saved), you cannot choose to go to hell; predestined  P: Perseverance of the saints  People will persevere and become saved if already chosen to be  Reformation in England  Church of England  Puritans o Separatists: wanted to separate from church of England o non-separatists: didn’t want to separate from church of England; church hasn’t gone far enough  Voluntary church (not territorial, opposed Catholic idea of territory)  Anglican Virginia colony o Form of Church of England in other countries o Settled in Jamestown, Virginia  Puritan New England  Pilgrims of the Mayflower o Separatist Puritans o Wanted to push reforms further  Massachusetts Bay Colony o Non-separatist Puritans  Rhode Island o Puritan nonconformists o Didn’t quite fit in with puritan establishment/leaders o Sometimes people exiled here  Puritan church membership  Conversion experience o Didn’t have to mediate between people and God through church o Direct experience for people to God o Had to testify to having this conversion experience before they could enter as a member of the church o Needed evidence from peoples’ lives to see if conversion was true  If person did bad things, the church said “God obviously hasn’t chosen you…”  Voting rights o Voting rights in colonies depended on church membership  Halfway covenant o 2-3 generations after Puritan experiment in America o people started leaving churches because they couldn’t prove they had a conversion experience o allowed halfway membership into the church  people without full conversion experience  granddaughter/grandson of member of church, etc.  Pluralist middle colonies  New york o Increasing protestant pluralism  Pennsylvania o Freedom of worship o Haven for religiously persecuted  Quakers  run out of different European countries Protestantism Pt. 2 American Protestant Liberal Tradition 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Reserve space in library workshop for paper  Email [email protected]  Catholicism vs. Protestantism  Catholicism: authority in the Bible and the Institution of the Catholic Church  Protestantism: authority in the Bible and direct experience  A Christian tree in America (pg. 122)  Make sure to take note of the tree for reference  Denomination: NOMIN = name  Book divides protestants into 4 large branches o Lutherans (traced from Martin Luther) o Church of England (Anglicans) o Calvinists (reformed)  Presbyterians  Congregationalists  Baptists  Quakers (radical form of Puritan group)  Inner light within each person o Anabaptists/Radicals (Amish and Mennonites)  The goal of the Transcendentalists was to transcend nature  True  False  Wanted to embrace nature, not transcend it.  Freemasonry spread Deism. Deism was a form of “natural religion”  True  False  The Protestant liberal tradition was optimistic about human nature  True  False  What is the liberal tradition  Divine immanence (no longer distance between God and humans… God is present in the world) o Humanity of Jesus o Goodness of humanity  If God became present in the world, humans can be seen as this good thing… God became human… humans are good  Social reform o Work with God’s presence in order to reform society  Millennial kingdom on earth o Millennialism: Christ’s reign on earth for 1,000 years o Postmillennialism  Jesus will come after the 1,000 years  Must work to create the kingdom before Jesus gets here  will arrive after  Colonial Foreshadowings of Liberalism  Baptists o Baptism of mature believers  Individuals have a choice in their development of being a Christian  Arminianism o Shifts emphasis of Protestantism in America o Replaces Calvinism (kind of)  emphasizes human choice; humans can influence whether they go to heaven or hell  Rationalism (presence of God in the human mind in our ability to reason) o Latitudinarians  Emphasized human reason o Enlightenment th  18 century movement  human thought, individualism, etc.  liberalism in the American revolution  natural religion  deism o spread the idea of natural religion o literally “Godism” o simplification of Christiany o emphasis of reason o ex: Jefferson Bible  Thomas Jefferson = deist  Famous for approach of the Bible  Emphasized human characteristics of Jesus  Cut out the miracles… made Jesus more humanistic than miracle  Freemasonry (masonic lodges) o A society of human brotherhood  political leaders  networking in the secret societies  rituals, symbolism, etc.  became extremely influential due to being so elite  19 thcentury liberal cooperation  fears of religious decline o important on the frontier o had frontier priorities, so church was in the back of people’s minds… less important than just surviving and such  joint efforts to revive religion o plan of union  Presbyterians and Congregationalists shared pulpits and missions (huge doctrine/agreement)  Especially on the frontier  Voluntary societies o Alongside churches o Social reform  Groups known for liberalism o Unitarians  Unity of God… rejected trinity  Jesus = savior… Jesus =/= God, however still above humans  Humans have morality o Universalists  Universal salvation th  Merged with Unitarians in the 20 century o Transcendentalists  Form of romanticism in America  Ralph waldo Emerson  Henry David thorou o Romanticism  Started in Europe  Nature is much more free flowing  Mind is much more free flowing with ideas  Liberal tradition after the civil war  Gospel of wealth o Blessing to be wealthy o “Acres of diamonds”  famous sermon by liberal minister  connecting divine will with wealth  Social gospel o Connecting gospel to social efforts for poor o Economic development o Social/class issues  Intellectual liberalism  Modernism o Want to adapt Protestantism to the modern world  “Higher criticism” of the bible o questioned old theories on how Bible was created o looked more at human hand in writing of Bible o focus on contexts and literary methods  Darwin’s theory of evolution o Evolution comes in conflict with God’s creation of man o Evolution started in 1850’s, but wasn’t accepted in scientific community in 1880’s o Churches didn’t know how to act about it  Fundamentalist – liberal split  Spits between and within denominations  Liberal denominations = UCC (United Church of Christ), Presbyterian  Moderate or mixed = Methodist, Lutheran  Fundamentalist = southern Baptist (split from northern Baptist… especially during slavery)  Neoorthodoxy  Niebuhr brothers o Important protestant intellectuals  Challenged liberal optimism o Humans aren’t completely divine; don’t have ability to do everything o Evil persists even with human goodness (see theological realism below)  Theological realism o Limits to human efforts o Persistence of evil  20 thcentury cooperation  ecumenical movement  denominational mergers o UCC, UMC (United Methodist Church), Presbyterian church (USA)  New organizations o World council of churches  Idea of churches coming together to work/be Christian churches in the modern world o National council of churches  National level (see above) ^  Liberal commitments to change  Banish sexism and militarism in humans o Sermons terminology, etc. o Influenced by feminist movement  Women’s ordination o Having women ministers o Influenced by feminist movement  Support civil rights  Environmental concerns  Welcoming churches o Welcomed LGBTQ people into communities 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  American religious diversity  Interactions with other religions o Discrimination of the minority o Combination o Cooperation o Mission work  Within these interactions, there are multiple ways of thinking about other religions African American Religion and Nationhood 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Last Lecture th  20 century revivalism o Billy Sunday o Billy Graham  Radio, film, television o Televangelists  Evangelicals who utilize television to preach their ideas th  20 century foreign missions o laymen’s missionary movement  business sponsors o student volunteer movement o shift to conservative missions  hocking report (1932)  produced by liberal protestants  went around world looking for progress during missionary efforts  concluded that emphasis should be switched to helping Christians in foreign countries as opposed to trying to convert foreigners  Sources of African American Religion o West African background o Condition of slavery o Language of European Christianity  Slavery  Slave trade, 1600’s-1700’s o West Africa  Importation of slaves outlawed, 1808  By 19 thcentury, 20% of national population was African American  West African religious worldviews  Sense of community o Close-knit, care for each other  Ancestors o Carried ancestors with you in present after they passed (spirits, tradition, etc.)  Continuity with spirit world o (Ancestors, etc.)  High God as creator o Not involved in everyday lives of individuals o God created the world, then stepped back  Tricksters (spiders, hares, etc.) o Smaller, insignificant animals that had interesting powers that shaped order from disorder  West African religious practices  Storytelling o Origin stories and how groups originated with spirits  Animal sacrifice o Used to interact with spirit world (offerings to ancestors/other spirits)  Divination o Certain rituals to see if the spirits wanted specific things  Music and dance o Carried over to gospels (present)  Possession o Spirits can possess a person’s body and can have certain control  Conjure o Involved magical practices o For harm or for heeling o Working with herbs and love spells  Christianity among slaves  Official Christianity o Methodists and Baptists o Catholics in Louisiana and Maryland  Invisible institution o Church without membership rolls, ordained pastors, official meetings places, or approved ceremonies o 1831 slave revolt led to ban on meetings o hush harbors  had to be very quiet when practicing religion o spirituals o ring shout  in circle, singing and dancing, outer circle rotating around the inner circle  the black church in freedom  blacks within white denominations o separate seating or churches  independent black churches  black denominations o AME 1816  African Methodist episcopal o AME Zion 1821  Pentecostal movement  Sanctification  Gifts of the holy spirit o Gifts of tongues = one of the gifts o Prophecy o Ability to decipher tongues o Healing  New esteem for blackness o Individuals believed they were worthy of the holy spirit  Azusa street revival (1906-1909) o Started by African American man o Started around time of large earthquake in L.A.  Emphasis on end of the world = sparked religion  Pentecostal denominations  20 thcentury black religion  migration to the north  migration to the cities o urbanization o growing class divisions  Afro-Caribbean immigrants o Cubans, Puerto Ricans  Urban religious combinations  Spiritual churches of new Orleans  Haitian vodou o Spiritual churches of new Orleans = huge with vodou o Saints important to vodou o Saints viewed as possessing individuals  Afro-Cuban Santeria o Some Haitian spirits viewed as catholic saints  Peace mission movement o Father divine: second coming of God… but in black form o Started peace mission movement o Reached out to poor in the city/began communal religious group that put emphasis on prosperity of African Americans  Religions of blackness  Desire for a black nation o Marcus garvey o Ethiopianism o Rastafarianism  Search for a black heritage o Moorish science temple  Nation of islam  Wallace fard (founder) o White people = blue eyed devils  Yakub’s history  Elijah poole/Muhammad  Malcom x  Wallace Muhammad  Louis farrakhan Mormonism Cont. and Christian Science 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Mormon Polygamy  Expand eternal family o Bigger family = better  Restorationism o The idea that they were restoring original versions of Christianity o Prophet (Joseph Smith) had revelation = this was the direction of the Mormon church and were supposed to have multiple wives  One requirement = had to treat wives equally  Financial requirement o Wives live separate or combined  1890 revelation o Utah’s statehood o Practice of polygamy wasn’t necessary to practice Mormonism anymore  Compare to Protestant Views on Catholics  Suspicious of: o Sexual patterns, obedience (against American individualism), authoritarian leader, secrecy, type of rituals th  Growing acceptance in the 20 century  Mormon Missionaries  Single men, ages 19-25  Single women over 21  Retired married couples  52,000 missionaries  training centers  assignments around the world  assignment = 2 years  go out in pairs, only mixed gender pairs of married  Christian Science o Christian science reading room  Open to the public  Kind of like a library  Has bibles and extra texts of “Science and Health”  Reading Questions o What is the official name for Christian Science?  Church of Christ, Scientist o Who is considered the founder of Christian Science?  Mary Baker Eddy o Who is Jesus according to Christian Science?  A scientist  Christian Scientists o Mary Baker Eddy  Taught by Phineas Quimby  Wrong thoughts transferred over to physical illness  Fell on ice  Led to her discovery  After Quimby died  Studied old testament Gospels = led to her healing and recovery (compared herself to Jesus)  What did Eddy discover?  Matter is not real  Only mind/spirit is real  Jesus knew this and healed  Healings  All sickness has the same cause = error (wrong thinking)  Pray to understand that sickness doesn’t exist  Rejects Western medicine o Christian Science Beliefs  Conceptions of God:  Divine principle  Mind  Truth  Father-Mother o Christian Science practices  Study  Science & Health with Keys to the Scriptures  Written by Eddy and wrote several versions over span of her life  wanted perfection  Practitioners  Visit, counsel, pray, heal  Demonstrations (healing demonstration)  Application of rules  Repeatable o Women and Christian Science  Female conception of the divine  Mother-Father God; God can be female or male or both  Receiver of revelation  Was a woman  Institutional founder  Mary Baker Eddy = woman  Readers  Men and women  Leader of services (don’t create own sermons, but read Eddy’s writings)  Healers  Sick  Negative implications if can’t heal yourself  Can’t let go of negative thoughts, etc.  Female bodies  Matter not existing = female body just an illusion; took away distinctiveness of female vs. male bodies  Religious freedom in America  Christian Science = reject medical services o Legal issues  Ill child/infant  Are you causing a danger to other people by rejected medical services?  Vaccines, infectious diseases (quarantines), etc.  Birthing children  Natural vs. drugs, etc. Review & Millerites, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Jehovah’s Witnesses 1/9/2012 2:56:00 PM  Review materials online  Need scantron and blue book  Essay question posted online  Christian Science Beliefs  Good vs. evil = sprit vs. matter  Death? o “An illusion, the lie of life in matter; the unreal and untrue; the opposite of Life” – Mary Baker Eddy o death continues in the world because so many people still believe in matter’s existence o people continued to progress after physical death  sexuality? o Humans needed to reproduce to create new souls o Conservative about sex because she didn’t want people to indulge in its physical matter  Christian Science and Mormon Similarities th  Christians made in 19 century America  Revelations and new sacred text o Text  Science and health text  The book of Mormon  Strong institutional organization o Mother church, institutional hierarchy, just reading of texts (no self-made sermons) o Early Utah: government and church related  Father and mother concepts of the divine  Prohibited alcohol and tobacco  “lived lives” and “I’m a Mormon” ads o testimonies for healing beliefs o emphasis of people still being normal despite being Mormon  Christian Science and Mormon Differences  Spirit vs. matter o Christian Science: spirit o Mormon: matter  Male vs. female founder  Degree of change after the founder o Christian Science: strong institutional structure/rewrote texts so it couldn’t be changed after her death o Mormon: different prophecies and prophets after death of founder, so things have changed and been added over time  Boston vs. Utah  Different versions of America-ness = science vs. pro-family o Christian science: emphasis American belief in science being practical o Mormon: tap into pro-family aspect of American tradition  Protestantism THINGS TO KNOW FOR TEST)  Principles of the reformation  Calvinism and Arminianism o Calvinism  Came from puritans (influenced by John Calvin)  Predestination (saved people = “the elect”)  Behavior: if someone behaves incorrectly  they aren’t among the saved  Slowly replaced in America by Arminianism o Arminianism  You can act and say things to alter your salvation  Individual choice/free will to change your predestination  Protestant liberal tradition  Major revivalists o Jonathan Edwards  “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” o George Whitfield  1 reformation nd o Charles Grandice  2 reformation o Dwight Moody  revivalism o Billy Sunday  patriotic, former baseball player o Billy Graham  saw video  Foreign missions  African American CONCEPTS TO KNOW FOR TEST  West African background  Two versions of slave Christianity  Pentecostalism o Belief in sanctification nd o 2 blessing = further gifts of holy spirit (prophecies, healing, gift of tongues, gift of interpreting tongues) o 1906-1909  revival in Los Angeles  Azuza Street Revival  Urban religious combinations  Religions of blackness  Mormon CONCEPTS TO KNOW FOR TEST  Role of joseph smith  Role of brigham young  Relationship to America  Polygamy  Comparison to Catholicism o Protestants suspicious of both catholics and Mormons  Sexuality (abstinence/polygamy)  Obedience to some authority figure  Loyalty to America/patriotism (obedience to authority figure challenged American individualism)  Superstitions  Ritualism is somehow not “real” religion o Both becoming more mainstream as time goes on  Millerites, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Jehovah’s Witnesses  Millerites o William Miller  Predicted 2 ndcoming of Jesus  Daniel 8:14 “Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.”  457 BCE + 1843 CE = 2300 days o if you know when the world will end, what do you do in the meantime? o What do you do if it doesn’t end? nd  The Great Disappointment October 22 , 1844  Miller got the calculation wrong, readjusted date ^  Seventh-Day Adventists o Adventism o Sabbatarianism  Believe the Sabbath is Saturday – Sunday  Believed this new dedication to this Sabbath would help bring Jesus to the earth o Visions of Ellen G. White  Early leader  Had dreams and visions about interpreting when Jesus would come  Current tradition: still considered Lord’s messenger o Practices  Hygiene reform and dietary practices  Body is a temple  Kellogg’s corn flakes made for this dietary reform  Dress reforms  tight female outfits not healthy, wanted looser outfits for women  Suspicious of government  Because of belief in 2 nd coming, don’t want to be involved in worldly politics  Want to
More Less

Related notes for RG ST 151A

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.